Cs research proposal

Guidelines on Writing a Research Proposal

If you have an accepted proposal, please help cheap custom essay papers including it in this collection. You may cs research proposal that the bulk of the proposals currently in this collection are in the area of computer graphics.

This is an artifact of me knowing more computer graphics folks to pester for their proposals. Add your non-graphics proposal to the collection and help remedy this imbalance!

Research Intent

Those cs researches proposal form the p63184jc.bget.ru systems are being used as landing pads and staging areas for data before it gets loaded into a cs researches proposal warehouse for analysis, often in a summarized form that is more conducive to relational structures.

Increasingly though, big data vendors are pushing the cs research proposal of a Hadoop Data Take that serves as the central repository for an organization’s incoming streams of Raw Data. In such architectures, subsets of the data can then be filtered for analysis in data warehouses and Analytics Databases, or it can be analyzed directly in Hadoop using batch query tools, stream processing software and Sql AND Hdoop technologies that run interactive, ad hoc queries written in Sql Potential pitfalls that can trip up organizations on big data analytics initiatives include a lack of internal analytics skills and the high cost of hiring experienced analytics professionals.

How to Write a Research Proposal

The amount of information that’s typically involved, and its cs research proposal, can also cause data management headaches, including Data Quality and consistency issues. In addition, integrating Hadoop systems and cs researches proposal warehouses can be a challenge, although various vendors now offer cs research proposal connectors between Hadoop and relational databases, as well as other data integration tools with big data capabilities.

Businesses are using the power of insights provided by big cs researches proposal to instantaneously establish who did what, when and where. The biggest value created by these timely, meaningful insights from large data sets is often the effective enterprise decision-making that the insights enable. Extrapolating valuable insights from very large amounts of structured and unstructured data from disparate sources in different formats require the proper structure and the proper tools.

To obtain the maximum business impact, this process also requires a precise combination of people, process and analytic tools.

Dissertation guide

Some of the potential business benefits from implementing an effective big data insights methodology include: It’s really important to cs research proposal this into account personally even if it’s not included in your proposal: If the proposal is to me, it should be in there. What will be your backup plan in each cs research proposal Is there an alternate, perhaps less desirable but cs research proposal acceptable path that will lead to some result other than absolute failure?

If not, and the failure has any real liklihood of occurring, then this is a seriously flawed cs research proposal plan. This section is very important, because you Research paper topics for college students 2015 to provide effective methods that will be used in your research study.

Try to list methods that were not previously used by other researches and order new research design, based on literature overview; Assumptions and consequences.

In this cs research proposal you need to clarify what impact will your study have, what are the suggestions and potential changes in the cs research proposal. You should also give information how it will influence the lives of others and how the results will be used; Conclusion. This section should be brief and straight to the point. You need to emphasize why your research is important and why it should be done.

Market Research Proposal Template

You should also write a few sentences on the potential field of its implementation and why people will benefit from it. It also demonstrates the cs research proposal of your proposed research. The proposal is the most important document that you submit as cs research proposal of the application process. It gives you an opportunity to demonstrate that you have the aptitude for graduate level research, for example, by demonstrating that you have the ability to communicate complex ideas clearly, concisely and critically.

The proposal also helps us hku thesis abstract match your research interest with an appropriate supervisor. Regardless of whether you are applying for the MJur, MPhil or PhD programmes, your research proposal should normally include the following information: Title This is just a tentative title for your intended research.

how much homework do high schoolers get accepted for admission. Abstract The proposal should include a concise statement of your intended research of no more than words.


Envision math 4th grade homework book

Honor knows the Grand Alliance must find a victory that doesn’t require incursions deep into Solarian space, doesn’t leave a legacy of bottomless hatred, and the strategy she envisions math 4th grade homework book has been working.

The League is sliding towards inglorious envision math 4th grade homework book as it steadily loses ground in the Protectorates and the Verge. As its central government teeters towards bankruptcy and even some of its core systems opt to secede in Why homework is a bad idea face of the Mandarins’ corruption.

As the Solarian Navy finally realizes it cannot face an Alliance battle fleet and win. But the Mandarins have embraced a desperate new strategy, and in mamapato.000webhostapp.com of that strategy, the SLN has committed atrocities such as the galaxy has not known in a thousand years.

The League have violated its own Eridani Edict against mass civilian casualties, violated the Deneb Accords prohibition on war crimes. And they have finally killed too many of the people Honor Harrington loves.

Hers edit my essay for free online of the situation.

Because complex strategic patterns are impossible to learn all at once, teachers usually direct students to practice individual subcomponents of the process. But we also know that envisioning math 4th grade homework book skills v150 nurse prescribing essay context is more effective than practicing skills in isolation. To support contextual practice, teachers can scaffold some parts of the process so that learners can focus on strengthening their abilities in other parts.

Scaffolds reduce the degrees of freedom in envision math 4th grade homework book to focus the learning in specific areas. Examples include the training wheels or parental hand on the back of the bicycle that envisions math 4th grade homework book a beginning bike rider’s balance; the passenger-side steering wheel a driving instructor can use how to overcome wedding speech nerves monitor a new driver’s steering; and a tennis instructor’s practice of guiding the arms of the novice server through the motion of the overhead stroke.

Electronic media are ideal for providing scaffolds in the context of learning.

Envision Math Grade 4

Ideally, scaffolds should be optional and assignable to individual students, the better to accommodate individual progress and differences between learners. Provide Dissertation zusammenfassung abstract Relevant Feedback Delivering ongoing, relevant feedback is critical when teaching skills.

Learners envision math 4th grade homework book to know if they are practicing effectively, and if not, which aspects of the practice process they need to change. If the ball is repeatedly hitting the net, the novice server knows that something is wrong—but what?

Is the toss too low? Is the swing too late? Is the step forward too large? Without feedback, the learner doesn’t even know if these are the right questions to ask! Feedback can come in many forms. The aspiring tennis player can watch a video of herself, listen to her coach’s observations, watch Masters degree in creative writing south africa versus the correct approach, or read a write-up of her game in the newspaper.

And it is important to envision math 4th grade homework book out that feedback is most effective when it is provided in an ongoing fashion—supporting course corrections and building learners’ confidence about things that are going well. But even students fortunate enough to have one-to-one instruction don’t have their teachers around during every practice session.

Thus, helping learners develop self-monitoring skills may be the very best way to ensure ongoing feedback for all practice. Software tools and digital networks can be an excellent source of ongoing feedback, particularly if students are shown how to take advantage of everything these tools offer.

A tool as simple speech-to-speech embedded in a word processor enables students to hear how their writing sounds when read aloud and then to revise as they work. Software programs designed to develop skills such as typing or arithmetic routinely offer specific feedback about performance as students work.

And online connections to mentors and peers offer students the chance to envision math 4th grade homework book comments from others outside the classroom. Offer Flexible Opportunities for Demonstrating Skill Another essential part of teaching a strategic skill is providing learners with chances to demonstrate that skill. Demonstration challenges learners to consolidate and apply all parts of the process. It also elicits feedback from a broader audience.

The budding pianist my watch essay in recitals; the student gives an oral presentation, displays a poster, or shares a written paper.

Digital media offer widely varied supports and opportunities to help students demonstrate knowledge and skills. Publishing on the World Wide Web or on a class home page invites feedback from an expansive audience and can provide a sense of accomplishment. Presentation tools such as HyperStudio and PowerPoint provide templates and tools for incorporating multiple media and for structuring presentations.

Desktop publishing software helps students incorporate images and layout printed work in a professional manner.

In application letter for professional internship success for diverse learners.

By assembling digital content, multimedia software, and Internet resources, teachers can build a collection of options that makes individualization feasible. These resources allow us to vary the media, models, supports, and feedback we offer to our students. To illustrate, let’s turn once again to a classroom example. Chen’s 5th grade class includes Charlie the student who has difficulty self-monitoring and staying on taskJamal who has good strategic planning skills and a Good essay topics for grade 11 disabilityand Patrick who has language-based learning disabilities.

Chen has set the get a paper written for you that the UDL envision math 4th grade homework book will help her individualize the instruction she provides. Chen reviews the teaching methods most helpful for strategic learning and considers the multimedia, networked tools, and scaffolds she might use to foster success for all her students.

Concentrating on the skill of writing narratives, Ms. Chen encourages her students to select story subjects they find interesting. To help them envision the stories they will be creating, she provides many models of fiction and nonfiction stories in text, sound, video, and image form.

She builds a classroom story collection of printed books, tapes, and videos and uses Inspiration software to create a story home page, with links to a library of digital stories—including some written by former students and some that she has found on the Web.

The software also allows her to group these stories into different categories, such as fiction and nonfiction, and even further, into narrative genres such as detective stories, fables, and application letters for a job

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Chen reads many of these stories aloud for and with her students, leading discussions of what students liked and didn’t like and highlighting story elements. The story home page envisions math 4th grade homework book links to author-focused Web sites so that students can learn from the insights of professional writers who model their working process. By providing so many different kinds of models, varying in content, medium, and context, Ms.

Chen ensures that everyone will find appropriate models to emulate as they begin to develop their own narratives. Chen’s students need to practice at their own level of challenge. Students who have trouble generating text often begin by creating a series of images or recorded sounds to envision math 4th grade homework book them develop their plot and characters; with this foundation, they usually find that text flows more easily.

Because this particular learning goal is focused on the writing process, Ms. Chen also encourages students to academic writing skills for essays them plan their stories structurally.

Different students in the class rely on scaffolds according to their needs: To support Jamal in focusing and condensing his lengthy story, Ms. Chen encourages him to strip it down to its main elements using Inspiration. Chen gives him a deadline, provides him with some rubrics for choosing a topic, and writes out a concrete essay writing samples of steps, each with a mini-deadline.

To help Patrick through his anxiety about producing text, Ms. Chen provides a multimedia story template and helps him scan in pictures of his favorite baseball player. The series of pictures will form the structure for his story. To generate ongoing feedback and build students’ self-monitoring capabilities, Ms. Chen encourages them to exchange drafts and review each other’s work mycollection.pl a structured format that includes constructive suggestions.

She also encourages students to use e-mail to solicit opinions from each other and from outside experts. For students who are ready, she suggests submitting drafts to Web sites where they can obtain outside reactions, including the Stone Soupsite http: Such online connections envision math 4th grade homework book her ability to help students obtain regular, ongoing feedback from a variety of sources. Chen also helps her students build their self-monitoring skills by encouraging them to compare their work to external models and compare their drafts to their mental models of their stories.

Using a digital microphone, students record themselves telling their stories. Next, they write the text of the story in a word processor and use text-to-speech to listen to how what they’ve written sounds when read out loud.

To meet the writing standard, Ms. Chen’s students need to produce their final story in text. But she encourages them to use other media, supporting alternative modes of expression and skill demonstration in conjunction with text see Gardner, tapesnake.com Studio, digitizing software, and publishing envisions math 4th grade homework book. With these tools, the students enhance the text they produce with images, sounds, and animations.

Some students produce artwork on paper or in clay to go along with their stories. By encouraging these diverse expressive pathways, Ms. Chen helps all students reach the text-based goal. Rich resources and tools enable teachers to diversify strategy instruction. By combining traditional tools, multimedia, and networked resources, teachers can provide every student with customized envisions math 4th grade homework book, expressive options, supports, and feedback.

These options give diverse learners a much better chance to succeed. The work of Goleman shares the UDL perspective that motivation is at least as important for school success as the capacity to recognize and generate patterns. Affect goes beyond simple enjoyment, and among other things, it envisions math 4th grade homework book a part in the development of persistence and deep interest Army 5 step problem solving process a subject.

If we emphasize skills and knowledge to the exclusion of emotion, we may breed negative feelings towards learning, especially in students having difficulties. Were we to focus on affect more explicitly in our learning goals, we might be more successful at one of the most important tasks for teachers—developing students who love to learn.

Theodore Sizer a, bGrant WigginsHeidi Hayes Jacobsand Jacqueline Grennon Brooks and Martin Brooks are among the many authors who advocate making important and engaging questions central to learning.

Their recommendations underscore the importance of connecting learning to students’ own lives and interests and giving students choices of content, methods, and materials whenever feasible. Giving students the flexibility to pursue their interests is an extremely successful teaching technique—and one that can be achieved without sacrificing learning objectives Hayes Jacobs, For example, a teacher might relate a unit focusing on the U.

Bill of Rights to the school’s student handbook, thus connecting a distant, abstract subject to students’ personal concerns and experiences.

But no one hook will work for every student. Over the course of development, unique individuals’ constitutions and experiences intermix to create their affective profiles—a combination of what envisions math 4th grade homework book, motivates, and engages them. These differences partially explain why print materials and lectures suit some learners, but leave others yawning.

Based on what we know about how affective networks function, which teaching methods are the most effective for reaching diverse learners? maryfrommspu.000webhostapp.com Choices of Content and Tools Certain activities are widely appealing—listening to music, watching movies, or getting outdoors. However, few of us love all music, movies, and outdoor activities.

We are selective in our taste, and, for example, might envision math 4th grade homework book prefer silence to music we dislike.

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For example, mastering the skill of envision math 4th grade homework book division in the abstract may seem uninteresting, but learning to calculate batting averages can be exciting. When affective engagement links background knowledge with strategic or recognition tasks, students are more likely to build skills, sustained interest, and deep understanding.

They are also more likely to pursue the extended practice needed for automatization. How ezap22.000webhostapp.com teachers provide content appealing to each of their students?

Digital media and materials can envision math 4th grade homework book the needed flexibility. A staggering array of digital content is available on compact disc and on the Internet. With these kinds of resources at teachers’ disposal, creating innovative ways of engaging learners in anything from long division to historical analysis is relatively easy to do. Students might take a QuickTime 3D tour of a pyramid http: Software programs also offer an array of engaging options.

Students who find affective barriers in textbooks or lectures can envision math 4th grade homework book scientific principles through virtual simulations online see http: The online game Secrets Sea http: At CAST, we have found that working with multimedia and the World Wide Web can break the cycle of discouragement and re-engage learners who are stressed by or indifferent to conventional learning media.

We have seen students with writing disabilities use Newspaper essay in english quotations or images to develop the key elements of a composition and then spend the next 45 minutes enthusiastically writing text.

Enjoyment and competence fuel students’ motivation to learn. In addition, more and more Web sites are dedicated to providing varied content and tools for instruction. The Web site for this book includes an expanding set of online resources for obtaining digital content and tools that fit with a westburn-finance.000webhostapp.com of curricula, are easily accessible, and are flexibly presented.

Find tips and tutorials on how to obtain digital text and multimedia materials and put them to work in your classroom at http: Students’ comfort zones—the level of difficulty, challenge, and frustration optimal for them—vary considerably.

Teachers who hope to sustain students’ engagement must be able to continually adjust the challenge for and among different learners. Although learning software is not as tightly calibrated as the best electronic games, most products do offer adjustable levels of challenge.

For example, 7th Level’s Great Math Adventure description at http: Many of the learning games from Edmark, such as Let’s Go Read! An Island Adventure, envision math 4th grade homework book sophisticated management systems that enable teachers to select difficulty levels and specific content for individual students.

Adjustable levels of challenge envision math 4th grade homework book advantages beyond the immediate power to engage. Providing such choices for students makes the process of goal-setting explicit and provides a structured opportunity for students to practice setting realistic goals and optimal challenges for themselves. Discovering the consequences of setting goals that are too high or too low envisions math 4th grade homework book students develop the meta-skills they need for independent learning.

Students with ADHD and other problems with strategic skills, who often have difficulty setting appropriate goals, can benefit from practice and experience in a supportive learning context. Offer a Choice of Rewards A common way to motivate students is to provide external rewards and punishments.

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These include deferred rewards like grades, concrete rewards like stickers or money, increased or decreased privileges like recess and field trips, and social rewards like affection and attention. There are two problems envision math 4th grade homework book this practice. First, each student has different ideas about what is or is not a reward. A trip to the ballet, for example, might be a reward to one student and a punishment to another!

Fear of punishment or failure spurs some students to work hard, but may envision math 4th grade homework book or frighten others. A true UDL environment solves this problem by offering students choices of rewards—effectively leveling the affective playing field. Second, external rewards best dissertation writers motivating learning over the long term.

The answer might be to look a little more closely at play. Most highly motivating video games give no external rewards at all; rather, the motivation they envision math 4th grade homework book comes in the form of immediate feedback and knowledge of results.

Building students’ meta-awareness of accomplishment and progress—an important tenet of UDL—may be one of the most effective ways to instill intrinsic interest in learning and support students’ long-term engagement. Offer a Choice of Learning Context Many of us can remember the months of haggling that preceded the Fischer-Spassky world championship chess matches.

These seemingly irrelevant details were crucial to Fischer and Spassky because they understood how important small details of contextmight be in chess matches that would last for months. The importance of context extends beyond cerebral contests like chess matches. Think about home-court advantages in sports. In basketball, for example, even though the basket is the same height, size, and color on every court, odds makers always assume that members of the home team will be more adept than their visiting opponents at getting the ball through the basket.

Although the physical components of shooting a basket are the same at home and away, the knowledge that friends and family fill the gym and the supportive roar of the crowd can activate greater affect and success.

These effects of home-court advantage can be attributed to the broad connectedness of our neural networks—almost any aspect of the environment is included when we learn.

In the classroom, factors such as noise and activity in a room or structure in a task contribute to the learning context students experience. One of us has a son named Nick who, as a high school student, drove his parents crazy by doing all his studying with radio, television, computer, or CD chamele-on.com blaring.

Most aggravating were the times when all four devices were on at once and competing for the highest decibel level! To Nick’s parents this seemed lunacy—an impossible context for learning.

But for Nick, the envision math 4th grade homework book of background noise was just right. This cacophony followed him as he became a National Merit Scholar and a Harvard graduate. Context preferences are individual. An optimal context for one student is not necessarily optimal for another. Some students like to explore ideas and create their own D day essay approaches.

Others would be paralyzed by that degree of freedom. One student might prefer to create a story or painting with minimal direction, whereas another would be unable to start unless provided with a topic and some initial, short-term goals. By offering students a selection of materials from which to choose, each with varying degrees of structure, we can offer all students an appropriate learning context.

As an example, The Great Math Adventure provides adjustable supports and an optional interactive, animated helper—allowing students to chose between figuring things out on their own or having their learning experience structured externally.

Teacher-designed WebQuests can be individually tailored to High distinction dissertation student’s structural preferences. For students who like many envisions math 4th grade homework book, we might preselect sites that contain the sought-after information. For students who prefer to locate information on their own, we could remove these signposts.

It is even possible to provide electronic options for distracters and background noise. The program’s one unexpected event—or distracter—was the occasional, random entrance of a fire-breathing dragon, which signaled the player to envision math 4th grade homework book a rapid retreat to another room. One day we tried Dragon’s Keep envision math 4th grade homework book an autistic youngster.

At the first appearance of the dragon, the boy was so startled and terrified that he was afraid to approach the computer for months. This reaction contrasted strongly with the reactions of other students, who not only enjoyed the program, but enjoyed the dragon especially. Some students with ADHD considered the dragon theonly good thing in the whole game! For them, no dragon meant no engagement. Had Dragon’s Keep been universally designed, the program would have included a built-in option to turn the dragon on and off, and consequently, it could have engaged both of these kinds of learners.

Now let’s see how our classroom example teachers are using UDL to offer content and media choices, adjustable challenge, and varying degrees of structure to engage their diverse students in learning.

Abrams’s classrooms are pursuing the Algebra benchmarks provided by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics available online at http: O’Connell’s 4th grade class is working toward the following goal: O’Connell decides to focus on graphic patterns with budding artist Miguel, thus engaging Miguel’s interest in art without sacrificing the teaching purpose.

To engage Kamla in this pre-algebra task, Ms. Abrams builds some exercises around basketball, Kamla’s favorite activity. She challenges Kamla to collect data from her basketball performance and use that data in math class. The use of digital cameras and computer spreadsheets make this an operable envision math 4th grade homework book. Abrams are both eager to offer their students alternative media choices.

O’Connell envisions math 4th grade homework book Miguel to create and duplicate a variety of patterns using paper, textiles, mobiles, and mosaics. Miguel scans these patterns into the computer and then manipulates the digital images, creating new designs and structures that apply the patterns indifferent configurations.

The ability to experiment with patterns he’s created himself keeps Miguel focused and on task. O’Connell adjusts levels of challenge by using templates when more support is needed and by providing an open-ended, creative task when Miguel’s confidence is strong. A break from traditional media is perhaps even more important for Kamla, who associates textbooks and worksheets with low achievement and frustration.

Abrams attempts to break the cycle of negative affect by incorporating new tools into the activity. With her teacher’s help, Kamla uses a spreadsheet program to develop Venn diagrams, bar graphs, and other graphic displays of her on-court performance data.

Abrams closely monitors the degree of challenge this presents.


Best creative writing schools in uk. Need assignment help

Creative Writing Masters Programs Masters in Creative Writing programs, often called MFA in Creative Writing programs, are a popular option that focuses on writing development and academic instruction. Students in these programs may encounter a holistic education that is equal parts Top homework apps for android and in-classroom study.

  • Depending on career goals and experience, areas of focus can vary greatly within creative writing careers.
  • Speak with your intended creative writing school for more information about possible concentrations.
  • At this level, students will be given a broad overview of different types of writing, such as fiction, poetry, and screenwriting, as well as a foundation in how to analyze written works.
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  • Nonetheless, there are some great options.
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  • Poetry Literary Translation While students may be focusing on different genres, they may take similar, if not identical, coursework.
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Some schools may also ask creative writing masters students to take best creative writing schools in uk in a residency requirement. This may require students to live and write on campus for an assigned duration. Keeping in mind these core requirements, students could potentially earn a masters degree in best creative writing schools in uk writing in 1 to 3 years. Program lengths vary by school.

Unlike typical graduate admissions, creative writing masters programs might place equal weight on previous writing experience Case study wallpaper Writing Workshops A large portion of a creative writing masters program is devoted to writing new pieces for workshop classes.

These are writing intensive courses where students may be required to submit new drafts of their current writing for peer feedback. These classes might be a great way to best creative writing schools in uk apply your writing know-how and also see best creative writing schools in uk your peers are creating. Additionally, writing workshops could provide a welcoming and safe environment for students to samobranka-club.ru and receive critical feedback on their work.

These students could provide constructive feedback from their different creative perspective. Workshop requirements may differ by school.

For more details, speak with your preferred mfa creative writing program about their workshopping process. For this purpose, many schools offer classes that deal with new perspectives or ways to interpret literature.

In addition, creative writing masters programs may require students to take graduate English courses to round out their literary knowledge. Classes could touch on the following topics. Check with prospective masters What are your short and long-term career goals essay writing programs for more details about their course guide. However, these programs similarly may require students to take best creative writing schools in uk in an on-campus residency.

A great example of this is the creative writing doctoral dissertation. Other doctoral programs typically have students present research for their dissertations. Louis Washington University has an excellent creative writing MFA program, lots of super specific class options, and a number of scholarships specifically earmarked for creative writing students.

Massachusetts Institute of Technology MIT might not be a school you generally associate with writing, but it actually has an excellent program that offers courses in digital media and science writing, as well as creative writing, and provides plenty of guidance on how graduates can navigate the tricky job market.

Still, MIT is probably not the best place for you if you hate science of all kinds. University of Michigan University of Michigan is one of the best creative writing schools in uk state essay conclusion on fossil fuels in the country and has a top-notch MFA program.

If you’re looking to service paper on Rate My Professors but make sure to read the actual reviews—and always take them with a grain of salt.

Just take into consideration best creative writing schools in uk kind of graduate program the school has. What Are the Alumni Doing Now? Traditionally, the programs require credit hours for completion. It also often prepares graduates to teach the craft to others at the collegiate level. Many programs take two to three years to complete, require 36 to 70 credit hours, and call for a completed creative writing thesis upon graduation.

2019 Best Online Colleges for Creative Writing Degrees

Traditionally, the programs offer concentrations in poetry and fiction, with select programs now offering coursework in media best creative writing schools in uk fields. Many individuals that hold this online degree go into publishing, communications, copywriting, teaching, and authoring. View Master’s Programs View Master’s Programs Online Certificates in Creative Writing Online best creative writing schools in uk writing certificates take approximately one year and are usually used to enhance another degree or for career advancement in a college essay help service that requires writing like marketing, non-profit fundraising, or content management.

Online classes include editing, storytelling, and writing for different media. Most programs require a high school diploma and writing samples, and often published work is not required. View Certificate Programs View Certificate Programs Accreditation for Online Creative Writing Degrees Accreditation is a valuable way for students, future employers, and governing entities to know that quality education is being provided.

Online programs need to be accredited in order for students to qualify for federal funding such as grants and loans, and graduating from an accredited program is often required to sit for state licensure exams. The AWP postulates that a valuable writing program offers extensive literary study, strong thesis advisors, accomplished faculty, and a best creative writing schools in uk student-to-teacher ratio, which is something students should consider when evaluating an online MFA program.

Careers nipasl.000webhostapp.com Creative Writing An online degree in creative writing can provide a breadth of career opportunities, from editing to marketing communications to grant writing. Depending on career goals and experience, areas of focus can vary greatly within creative writing careers.

Common Online Classes for Creative Writing Students Creative writing is a field that encapsulates many specialities, so there will likely be a variety of online courses offered. Listed below are some common online classes: Forms and Techniques of Fiction: This class gives students the tools to analyze and imitate important pieces of fiction in order to gain a historical understanding of the creative process.


Cover letter for registered nurse position

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Until then, thank you for your consideration and I look forward to meeting with you. Registered Nurse Cover Letter Sample 4: I am writing to express Ordering fractions homework sheet in the RN position open at your facility and ask that you please consider me for a position.

From my resume, you will see that my experience matches the qualifications listed for this position. I heard about this job through your website and I am very interested in what you have to offer.

I am passionate about nursing and I realise that cover letter for registered nurse position care requires a solid foundation in nursing skills and techniques, organisation and prioritisation of care, and communication skills.

These skills, along with my compassion, patience, and patient advocacy, are what I offer as a registered nurse. I would be honoured grammar check site excited to be a part of your team and contribute my skills to your staff and patients.

Cover Letter for a Registered Nurse Position

I welcome the opportunity to discuss this position in person at your convenience. I look forward to an interview with you to discuss my education and experience.

  • I am passionate about nursing and I realise that patient care requires a solid foundation in nursing skills and techniques, organisation and prioritisation of care, and communication skills.
  • You should be looking for typographical errors and simple mistakes, but you should also keep an eye out for what impression the cover letter gives.
  • Many times, all it takes is a clear statement that you’re very interested in the job and would like to learn more about it in a personal meeting.
  • As you can see from the attached resume, my experience as a certified nursing assistant and unit secretary , along with my variety of clinical experiences, have allowed me to attain a foundation of skills necessary to ease into my career as a Registered Nurse.
  • Bureau of Labor Statistics, which ranks RN jobs among the fastest growing — 26 percent growth through
  • I was praised by clinical instructors for my eagerness to learn and ability to multi-task.

If there is any additional information you would like me to provide, please feel free to contact me at the information above. Your time and consideration are greatly appreciated.

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An RN’s cover letter should include some basic, yet necessary, elements: Introduction The first paragraph of your cover letter should contain a brief introduction, the position or title and where you saw the job advertised. If someone who already works for the health care facility referred you, mention that person’s name. That will likely capture the reader’s cover letter for registered nurse position, especially if the recruiter or hiring manager is acquainted with the person from whom you received the recommendation.

You needn’t be too clever Limitations of 4g technology essay the first paragraph with a catchy opening line because the health care field is still relatively conservative.

How to write a cover letter for a registered nurse position

Clinical Skills or Rotations If you’re a recent nursing school graduate, your experience may be limited to clinical rotations during which you bonded cover letter for registered nurse position a cover letter for registered nurse position while you worked in various areas of a hospital.

For instance, for a well-rounded nursing education, you may have worked in pediatrics, obstetrics, oncology and cardiology units of a hospital. Showcase your experience in different areas if you don’t have a preference where you’re assigned to be a staff RN.

On the other hand, if you’re a seasoned professional, emphasize your deep expertise in certain areas, such as telemetry nursing, postoperative care or emergency room nursing where many hospitals may require highly skilled nurses with several years of experience.

Professional Characteristics Aside from having compassion for those who what is creative writing the expert care of physicians, nurses and patient care specialists, professional traits matter when it comes to joining a health care team. Physicians, nurses, orderlies, lab technicians and even admissions clerks work collaboratively to render the best medical care possible.

In the third paragraph of your letter, describe your communication skills and attention to detail as core competencies and your cooperative attitude about teamwork as one of your professional traits that will benefit the organization.


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Nearly all freight to California was carried by regular sailing vessels—they were slow but the cheapest way Business plan for my life ship cargo.

Starting about many travelers to California took steamboats to Panama or Nicaragua, crossed the Isthmus of Panama or Nicaragua and caught another steamboat to California. This trip could be done in 40—60 days—depending on connections. Those who took the California Trail usually essay in spanish to english Missouri River towns in early April and arrived in California — days later—late August or early September. About half the Argonauts to California came by wagon on one of these routes.

Gold Rush effects[ edit ] Starting in before gold in California was even confirmed, Congress had contracted essay in spanish to english the Pacific Mail Steamship Company to set up regular paddle steamer packet shipmail, passenger and cargo routes in the Pacific Ocean. Once the California Gold Rush was confirmed, other paddle steamers soon followed on both the Pacific and Atlantic routes.

Steam powered tugboats started working in the San Francisco Bay soon essay in spanish to english this. Agriculture expanded throughout the state to meet the food needs of the new settlers.

Agriculture was soon found to be limited by the difficulty of essay in spanish to english enough water in the right places to grow irrigated crops. Winter wheat planted in the fall and harvested in the spring was one early crop that grew well online research papers irrigation.

At the beginning of the Gold Rush, there was no written law regarding property rights in the goldfields, and a system of «staking claims» was developed by the miners.

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The Gold Rush also had negative effects: Native Americans were pushed off of traditional lands and massacred [60] and gold mining caused environmental harm. In the early years of the California Gold Rush, placer mining methods were used, from panning to «cradles» and «rockers» or «long-toms», to diverting the essay in spanish to english from an entire river into a sluice alongside the river, and then digging for gold in the gravel down to the rocky river bottom.

This placer gold had rate my essay paper freed by the slow disintegration, over geological time, that freed the gold from its ore. This free gold was typically found in the cracks in the rocks found at the bottom of the gravel found in rivers or creeks, as the gold typically worked down through the gravel or collected in stream bends or bottom cracks.

This gold greatly increased the available money in the United States, which was on the gold standard at that time—the more gold you had, the more you could buy. As the easier gold was recovered, the mining became much more Define argumentative/persuasive essay and labor-intensive as the hard rock quartz mining, hydraulic mining, and dredging mining evolved.

Both during the Gold Rush and in the decades that followed, hard-rock mining wound up being the single-largest source of gold produced in the Gold Country. Navy started making plans for a west coast navy base at Mare Island Naval Shipyard. The greatly increased population, along with the new wealth of gold, caused: The sudden growth in population caused many more towns to be built throughout Northern, and later Southern, California and the few existing towns to be greatly expanded.

The first cities started showing up as San Francisco and Sacramento exploded in population. Effects on indigenous population[ edit ] Most California Indians are thought to have been located near the coast, the same areas the Spanish Missions were established.

Since California Indians had no essay in spanish to english before it was introduced by the Franciscan padres, they were strictly hunter-gather society tribes which could not support large populations—large populations require agriculture. During the Spanish and Mexican California occupation period nearly all coastal tribes south of San Francisco were induced to join a mission. So many Mission Indians died from exposure to harsh Bowling research paper at the missions and diseases like measles, diphtheria, smallpox, syphilis, etc.

As reported by Krell, Division word problem solving for grade 3 of December 31,the mission Franciscan padres from to had performed a combined total of 87, baptisms and 24, essays in spanish to english, and recorded 63, deaths. The Missions were becoming ever more strained as the number of Indian converts drastically declined and the deaths greatly exceeded the births.

The ratio of Indian births to deaths is believed to have been less than 0. The Indians typically worked at one of the four Spanish pueblos as servants or at the newly established ranchos for room and board or attempted to join other tribes in the interior. The new ranchos occupied nearly all their original tribal territories. The new wave of immigration that was sparked by the gold rush would continue to have a disastrous impact on California’s native population, which continued to precipitously decline mainly due to Eurasian diseases to which they had no natural immunity.

There were a number of massacres, including the Yontoket Massacrethe Bloody Island Massacre at Clear Lake, and camel business plan Old Shasta Massacre, in which hundreds of indigenous people were killed. Thousands more are thought to have died due to disease. Combined with a low birth rate for Indian women the Indian population precipitously declined. Between andthe state of California paid around 1.

These «private military forays» were involved in several of the above-mentioned massacres, and sometimes participated in the «wanton killing» of Native peoples. The first governor of California, Peter Burnettopenly called for the essay in spanish to english of the Indian tribes, and in reference to the violence against California’s Native population, he said, «That a war of extermination will continue to be waged between the two races until the Indian race becomes extinct, must be expected.

While we cannot anticipate the result with but painful regret, the inevitable destiny of the race is beyond the power and wisdom of man to avert. Several scholars, including Benjamin Madley and Ed Castillo Argumentative essay topics for antigone Pacific SquadronMexican—American War.

Also included are sections on California naval installations, California essay in spanish to english, California shipwrecks, and California lighthouses. History of slavery in California Tribes in northwest California practiced slavery long before the arrival of Europeans. Some returned east with enough gold to purchase their relatives. Nevertheless, as per the Act for the Government and Protection of Indians, a number of Native Americans were formally enslaved in the essay in spanish to english, a practice that continued until the mids, when California changed its laws to conform to the 14th Amendment.

California in the American Civil War The possibility of splitting off Southern California as a territory or a state was rejected by the national government, and the idea was dead by when patriotic fervor swept California after the attack on Fort Sumter.

California’s involvement in the American Civil War included sending gold east, recruiting or funding a limited number of combat units, maintaining numerous fortifications and sending troops essay in spanish to english, some of whom became famous. Following the split in the Democratic Party inRepublican supporters of Lincoln took control of the state inminimizing the influence of the large southern population.

Their great success was in obtaining a Pacific railroad land grant and authorization to build the Central Pacific as the western half of the transcontinental railroad. California was settled primarily by Midwestern and Southern farmers, miners, and businessmen. Keys to the Excellent Spell and Grammar Check Service To minimize the risks of facing inadequate website, you should learn the features of the excellent grammar and spell check service.

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A British and a German historian would disagree deeply on many things, even on fundamentals, but there would still be that body of, as it were, neutral fact on which neither would seriously challenge the other. It is just this common basis of agreement, with its implication that human beings are all one species of animal, that totalitarianism destroys.

The implied objective of this line of thought is a nightmare world in which the Leader, or some ruling clique, controls not only the future but the essay in spanish to english. If he says that two and two are five — well, two and two are five. This prospect frightens me much more than bombs — and after our experiences of the last few years that is not a frivolous statement. But is it perhaps childish or morbid to terrify oneself with visions of a totalitarian future?

Before writing off the totalitarian world as a nightmare that can’t come true, just remember that in the world of today would have seemed a nightmare that couldn’t come true.

Against that shifting phantasmagoric world in which black may be white tomorrow and yesterday’s weather can be changed by decree, there are in reality only two safeguards.

Event planning business plan is that however essay in spanish to english you deny the truth, the truth goes on existing, as it were, behind your back, and you consequently can’t violate it in ways that impair military efficiency.

The other is that so long as some parts of the earth remain unconquered, the liberal tradition can be kept alive. Let Fascism, or possibly even a combination of several Fascisms, conquer the whole world, and those two conditions no longer exist. We in England underrate the danger of this kind of thing, because our traditions and our past security have given us a sentimental belief that it all comes right in the end and the thing you most fear never really happens.

Nourished for essays in spanish to english of years on a literature in which Right invariably triumphs in the last chapter, we believe half-instinctively that evil always defeats itself in the long run. Pacifism, for dev.get3clicks.com is founded largely on this belief.

Don’t resist evil, and it will somehow destroy itself. But why should it? What evidence is there that it does? And what instance is there of a modern industrialized state collapsing unless conquered from the outside by military force?

Consider for instance the re-institution of slavery. Who could have imagined twenty years ago that slavery essay in spanish to english return to Europe?

Well, essay in spanish to english has been restored under our noses. The forced-labour camps all over Europe and North Africa where Poles, Russians, Jews and political prisoners of every race toil at road-making or swamp-draining for their bare rations, are simple overfishing case study geography slavery.

The most one can say is that the buying and selling of slaves by individuals is not yet permitted. In other ways — the breaking-up of families, for instance — the conditions are probably worse than they were on the American cotton plantations. There is no reason for thinking that this state of affairs will change while any totalitarian domination endures. We don’t grasp its full implications, because in our mystical way we feel that a regime founded on slavery must collapse.

But it is worth comparing the duration of the slave empires of antiquity with that of any modern state. Civilizations founded on slavery have lasted for such periods as four thousand years. When I think of antiquity, the detail that frightens me is that those hundreds of mamapato.000webhostapp.com of slaves on whose backs civilization rested generation after generation have left behind them no essay in spanish to english whatever.

We do not even know their names. I can think of two, or possibly three. One is Spartacus and the other is Epictetus. I have Tudor family tree homework mental picture of poor Felix a Gaul with red hair and a metal collar round his neckbut in fact he may not have been a slave; so there are only two slaves whose names I definitely know, and probably few people can remember more.

The rest have gone down into utter silence. In the long run — it is important to remember that it is only in the long run — the working class remains the most reliable enemy of Fascism, simply because the working-class stands to gain most by a decent reconstruction of society. Unlike other classes or categories, it can’t be permanently bribed. To say this is not to idealize the working class.

In the long struggle that has followed the Russian Revolution it is the manual workers who have been defeated, and it is impossible not to feel that it was their own fault.

Time after time, in country after country, the organized working-class movements have been crushed by open, illegal violence, and their comrades abroad, linked to themin theoretical solidarity, have simply looked on and done nothing; and underneath this, secret cause of many betrayals, has lain the fact that essay in spanish to english white and coloured workers there is not even lip-service to solidarity.

Who can believe cover letter international event manager the class-conscious international proletariat after the events of the past ten years? To the British working class the massacre of their comrades in Vienna, Berlin, Madrid, or wherever it might be seemed less interesting and less important than yesterday’s football match.

Yet this does not alter the fact that the working class will go on struggling against Fascism after the others have caved in. One essay writing examples the pinch comes.

They are far-sighted enough to see the odds against them, and moreoever they can be bribed — for it is evident that the Nazis think it worth while to bribe intellectuals. With the working class it is the other phuocan-ltd.com about.

Too ignorant to see through the trick that is being played on them, they easily swallow the promises of written paper yet sooner or later they always take up the struggle again.

They must do so, because in their own bodies they always discover that the promises of mamapato.000webhostapp.com cannot be fulfilled.

Spanish translation of ‘essay’

To win over the working class permanently, the Fascists would have to raise the general standard of living, which they are unable and probably unwilling to do. The struggle of the working class is like the essay in spanish to english of a plant. The plant is blind and stupid, but it knows enough to keep pushing upwards towards the light, and it will do this in the face of endless discouragements.

What are the workers struggling for? Simply for the decent life which they are more and more aware is now technically essay in spanish to english. Their consciousness of this aim ebbs and flows.

In Spain, for a while, people were acting consciously, moving towards a goal which they wanted to reach and believed they could reach. It accounted for the curiously buoyant feeling that life in Government Spain had during the early months of the war.

The common people knew in their bones that the Republic was their friend and Franco was their enemy. They knew that they were in the right, because they were fighting for something which the world owed them and was able to give them. One has to remember this to see the Spanish war in its true perspective. When one thinks of the cruelty, squalor, and futility of War — and in this particular case of the intrigues, the persecutions, the lies and the misunderstandings — there is always the temptation to say: In practice, however, one cannot be neutral, and there is hardly such a thing as a war in which it makes no difference who essays in spanish to english.

A critique of Western theories on development and underdevelopment Few memoirs can have been written in conditions of such essay in spanish to english constraint as these short autobiographical essays.

Times, Sunday Times It is an essay about wasted lives. business plan for container shipping Sunday Times She also neatly essays a couple of subsidiary male roles. Times, Sunday Times This is not a great essay in historical writing, but a readable and sensible one. Times, Sunday Times Was she surprised by the reaction to her first essay?


Assignment writing service – Ptsd research paper conclusion

The pineal gland begins to function in the developing human fetus around the 49th day after conception, and, at first, it is located in the back of the throat and then gradually moves upward and inward during gestation to be finally located in the center of the brain.

This duct is usually sealed by bone tissue in early childhood, though in some cases it may persist into adulthood. This may explain the acrid slightly metallic taste in the back of the throat that is sometimes associated with a hormone release from the central brain. This «nectar» most likely originates from the pituitary gland but may also involve a collaboration with the pineal gland.

Certain ptsd research paper conclusion texts refer to this secretion as the «nectar of sublime awareness» or amrita that guide to writing a basic essay produced by deep meditation focused on the highest chakra: This secretion is also referred to in the Druid culture of British Isles as the «grail» itself.

Isn’t it ironic, and really not so surprising, that the Holy Grail – an invaluable treasure sought after by thousands of deeply dedicated souls throughout history – is actually a gift available to each and every one of us from the very ptsd research paper conclusion of our brain? It is quite likely that most of us have had endogenous DMT experiences before the age of 3, though this period of life grows more and more difficult to remember as we mature.

Subjective experiences that stem from the unconscious, like dreams, are quickly reabsorbed into the unconscious unless a determined ptsd research paper conclusion is made to remember them. One of the main purposes of this article is to familiarize us with one of our hidden gifts by giving it a name and a logical framework, with this in place it makes it easier for us to recognize hyper-consciousness experiences of our personal past and the experiences of others that we may have heard of.

Giving one the taste of self-consciousness untethered from the body. Gopi Krishna, an advanced Indian yogi, maintains that when the pineal gland is activated by kundalini energy, the door to universal knowledge, evolution, and genius is opened: A Native American ritual involving fasting and prayer that results in a profound life-altering vision.

A cultivated state of mind that allows Australian Aborigines to raise themselves above the landscape and perceive the location of pathways and sources of water and food in what appears to be nothing more than an endless desert ptsd research paper conclusion.

Aborigines are true minimalists and pride themselves for using as few tools as possible in order to survive, instead, they rely on get a paper written for you carefully cultivated ability to read the landscape with hyperconscious Dreamtime Ancestor awareness in order to unveil the locations of food, water, shelter, pathways and other necessities.

This is an example of one of the many ancient cultures that manifested the use of the pineal gland METAtonin experience as a guide for daily life. This is further discussed in the section on neurotheology and in section 5, Dreamtime.

Dreamtime Ancestors guide everyday life D Sufi enlightenment: An ecstatic transcendent ptsd research paper conclusion discipline based on a special form of swirling dance meditation God awareness. This form of dance originates from the San people of South Africa. Developed by Mantak Chia of Thailand, a Taoist scholar and healer, this is an ptsd research paper conclusion method of enlightenment.

Mantak has built a special chamber that can accommodate over 60 attendees. This may also refer to the autotelic experience as described by Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi, an ego-less ecstatic state achieved during a creative or athletic pursuit: Engelbert Winkler and Dr.

Dirk Proecke creates a «hypnagogic ptsd research paper conclusion experience» by using carefully timed flashing lights. You can visit one of the US distributors at: Another device is the Shakti Helmet that, when used in conjunction with meditation, may help activate certain brain areas to initiate a METAtonin episode.

Presently, virtual reality technology is also under experimentation, one mamapato.000webhostapp.com Maintaining that all human perception of self is based on a virtual reality embodied within the brain, they have been successful at substituting standard human perceptions with believable, tactile alternate perceptions of shifted consciousness.

In ptsd research paper conclusion so proofreading for kids becomes convinced that they occupy a body or space outside of their own.

This is proved to be a very ptsd research paper conclusion tool to treat a variety of psychological disorders. Participants, Essay writing topics in wipro in 90 minutes experience the virtual aging process, death, translation, the tunnel, life review and emergence, gain insight and comfort with the ptsd research paper conclusion of death and dying. Metzinger maintains that ptsd research paper conclusion OBEs do not take place outside the body, but that they originate within the virtual chamber of the brain.

This does not explain, however, Near-Death Experiences which occur when the brain is flat-lined and totally non-functional. The researchers in this project never referred to or considered the pineal gland to be of any consequence.

A Rebirthing, now known as Holotropic Breathwork pioneered by Dr. Stanislav Grof is a transcendent experience that can be brought on by controlled hyperventilating with the help of an experienced guide. This process may result in activating rarely used METAtonin-synthetic pathways in the pineal gland or may in some way encourage the lungs to increase DMT production beyond normal levels.

Stanislav Grof B An ecstatic transcendent collective OBExperience can be experienced by members of an emotionally charged group, gathering, celebration, or revolutionary movement as in the abovementioned trance dance.

C An extremely intense personal emotional or ptsd research paper conclusion challenge can sometimes result in emotionally uplifting pivotal OBE, or epiphany. In his autobiography, R. Buckminster Fuller describes such an uplifting experience at a point of deep depression in his life; this experience completely changed his life; it gave him a new perception of himself and revealed to him a vision of how he could make his unique contribution to humanity.

Joseph Chilton Pearce in his Spiritual Initiation and the Breakthrough of Consciousness, discusses these phenomena in the beginning chapters of this book. Edward and Emily Kelly in their book The Irreducible Mind – Toward a Psychology for the 21st Century devote a whole chapter to pivotal mystical experiences and the many studies that have been made about this subject.

The Kellys recognize Strassman’s ptsd research paper conclusion, but the ptsd research paper conclusion was published before the latest Nazi germany essay thesis in pineal gland DMT production were announced.

In this case, METAtonin is secreted to allow an individual to escape from an excruciating physical pain or trauma, as reported by many child abuse victims and victims of combat trauma, torture, exhaustion or extreme pain during an emergency. This is also discussed in chapter 3 of the book The Secrets of the Soul: Later on in this paper I mention an incident where a friend of mine relied on and out-of-body experience to deliver her from a life-threatening situation.

In this mode, the out-of—body phenomenon is functioning as a survival mechanism. Soldiers being debriefed after serving in combat situations are routinely warned not to discuss their combat OBExperiences after release.

  • One of the factors that make it so difficult to win a compensation claim for pyschiatric injury is that the respondent to the claim can, and is highly likely to have the claimant examined by a psychiatrist of their choosing, who will dismiss the notion of post-traumatic stress disorder and claim, instead, testify that the claimant has some other underlying mental illness.
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  • Clearly, the emotional and behavioral difficulties faced by children with RAD are due to severe disturbances in attachment during infancy.
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The military may have kept records on ptsd research paper conclusion induced Out-of-Body incidents, but they have not been released to the public. This topic has a tremendous ptsd research paper conclusion for research. Out of Body Consciousness can occur both in the heat of battle and resurface much later as a common dissociative symptom of PTSD, see http: E An out-of-body experience sought by those who use self-inflicted pain as a vehicle for transcendence, such as in the American Indian Sundance ceremony or self-flagellation, as practiced by certain devout Christian sects.

F An Out-Of-Body experience can result from a deeply connected sexual experience. Several neurohormones are secreted by the pituitary gland as a result of sexual activity include oxytocin bonding, nurturing, empowermentdopamines pleasure, reward and norepinephrine. The production of the latter neurohormone could possibly stimulate kradleandklass.com production of endogenous DMT by the pineal gland resulting in an OBE.

Wolf, however, does not specifically mention the OBE phenomenon in her book. Apparently, a special connection can exist ptsd research paper conclusion two partners that can bring about a shared Out-of- Body Experience. It seems to be a form of resonance that is generated by some kind of subconscious alignment.

There are a number of YouTube videos by Angelstarcreations that address this subject as well: The Taoist philosophy ptsd researches paper conclusion sexual energy in a third light. They acknowledge that the human design includes access portals to higher and clearer consciousness that is brought about by engaging the completely aligned and energized endocrine system capped by the pineal gland and that the primal, and the essential force that catalyzes this process is mentally harnessed sexual energy.

According to their philosophy, when primal sexual energy is wasted, one becomes enervated; if it suppressed, subverted or improperly resolved it can result in unlimited greed, rage, bitterness and sociopathic misalignment. This wisdom is gleaned from Taoist study of the potentials of human nature that goes back as far college essay writing service 2, BC during the reign of the Yellow Emperor.

The ptsd research paper conclusion of Taoist discipline is a form of continuous enlightenment that is attained by energizing the pineal gland via image-guided primal life force resulting in a superbly aware state of mind embodying a firmly grounded, agile yet fully relaxed and fully aware physical presence. More information on present-day research into the beneficial relationship between sexual activity and human longevity can be found in the Dreamtime section.

Out-of-body events have been experienced by pilots in high-G situations both during maneuvers and in high-G simulators. H There are many out-of-body epiphanies reported in the lives of many of our greatest leaders, writers, artists, and researchers, as well as everyday people.

Sometimes these episodes are simply reported as being touched by the hand of God.


Usually, the epiphany is the culmination of a long mental or emotional struggle and results in a total realignment of perspective. Raymond Moody, Dutch cardiologist Dr.

Pim Van Lommel, Dr. Rick Strassman, and ptsd researches paper conclusion others. Van Lommels’ book, Consciousness Beyond Life: That is, their brain was clinically silent, their eyes were taped shut and their ptsd researches paper conclusion plugged and yet, repeatedly, after resuscitation the patients accurately recalled surgery room events that they had observed from above the surgery theater in detail.

A ptsd research paper conclusion at first, the intrigued cardiologist proceeded on a very scientific examination of the NDE phenomena and came to the same conclusion that Dr. This book follows a methodical scientific and medical approach to a subject that has been long rejected by the scientific community and comes to the scientific conclusion that consciousness can exist beyond the parameters of the physical brain.

Of all the categories discussed in this paper, NDE evidence is the most mebelnik.000webhostapp.com because the OBE subject is being carefully monitored during their experience and the subject can then verify their personal observations with the recordings of the surgery procedure.

Here is a ptsd research paper conclusion in point: George Ramsey, a ptsd research paper conclusion school teacher in Walkill, NY, suffered a heart attack while driving. He blacked out and crashed into pet store at which point his heart stopped beating and he had a near-death experience. When he awoke, he was surprised to find himself handcuffed to a hospital bed.

The hospital had done a toxicology test and had discovered DMT in his blood. The police had booked him for driving while ptsd research paper conclusion the influence of an illegal write my research paper for me cheap Ramsey did not partake of drugs and had never heard of DMT.

A further inquiry into public records may reveal similar events. This may be a situation where both melatonin and METAtonin are working together. These criticisms are given, with some exploration into whether this disorder is really the result of disturbance in ptsd research paper conclusion or due to responses and reactions both on the part of the caregiver and the child due to temperament.

Stafford, Zeanah, and Scheeringa point out that the DSM-IV focuses more on a child’s aberrant social behavior rather than on a child’s disturbed attachment behavior, deemphasizing the significance of attachment in RAD.

Also, pathogenic care is described as the etiology for RAD, with little attention given to a biological predisposition to developing the disorder. Review of Reactive Attachment Disorder Reactive attachment disorder RAD is one of the few psychological disorders that can be applied to infants Zeanah, Children affected by RAD exhibit an inability to form normal relationships with other people as well as impaired social development and sociopathic behaviors due to the absence of secure attachment formation early in life Wilson, Children with the inhibited form of RAD are emotionally withdrawn and rarely respond to or even seek out comfort.

Overview of Attachment Theory Bowlby’s theory of attachment was centered on evolutionary thinking. Infants are vulnerable and unable to fend for themselves. As long as an infant is well loved and its biological needs are consistently met, The case study is a research method in which quizlet will learn to trust and feel secure with his caregiver, and a healthy attachment will be made Wilson, This attachment will continue to influence one’s interpersonal relationships throughout life.

Ainsworth expanded on Bowlby’s ptsd research paper conclusion with the idea that the primary caregiver acts as a secure base for exploration. How well the caregiver meets the needs of the infant will affect the security of the attachment. Securely attached infants exhibit little avoidance or resistance to contact with the caregiver and use the caregiver as a secure base for exploration. The ICD, although it does not make such a requirement, ptsd researches paper conclusion warn clinicians against diagnosing a child with RAD unless there is some evidence of pathogenic care Zeanah et al.

Given such implications, it follows logically that children most likely to have RAD are those that come from abusive families or were raised in foster care or orphanages. This is due to the fact that, on average, they have had a greater ptsd research paper conclusion of caregivers preventing them from having that crucial experience of forming a strong, secure attachment in infancy.

Two of the children lived periodically with different relatives, and the ptsd research paper conclusion two experienced a combination of foster care and care with relatives.

These children exhibited a number of social behavioral issues including impulsivity, aggression, erratic mood swings, oppositional behavior, emotional withdrawal, and self-injurious behavior. Generally, the criteria for the inhibited subtype of RAD were generated by studies done on children who were maltreated or abused.

Criteria for the persanpercin.com ptsd research paper conclusion of RAD were based on research on children raised in institutions Zeanah, My wife heard that Hemp Oil could help, and for the price the entire family was strong in faith and willing to try anything that would save my Life, I have completed the treatment regime with total eradication of the disease from all parts of my body.

About 5yrs ago she was having the odd jerk in her left arm. An neroligest said it was caused by meds So she tried many different drugs which made it worse.

The effect of family presence during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the family members themselves and the medical team remains controversial. We .

Over the course of time her condition has gotten worse Finally I took her off al the meds but her BP and cholesterol meds and on the next ptsd research paper conclusion he had know answers. I think that anyone with dementia or related conditions should never be put on drugs like antivan ,clonazepam ,diazepam or sleeping pills they all made things worse.

But with the oil she has better sleep. I would rather her her snoring than not truly sleeping. And unlike sleeping pills she is more stable in the morning or ptsd research paper conclusion she gets up during the night.

And as far as being addictive ya right BS It helps and no side affects. How many pages of side affects do you get with your perscriptions??? We all have cb1 and cb2 receptors in are brains that are helped by marijuana if you need it use it! God knew see Rev. Verse 1 and 2. My mum has dementia and we need something to relax her and help her ptsd research paper conclusion.

It should looks like used motor oil. svpoonam1601.000webhostapp.com clear hemp oil sold online is nothing like real thing.

Very hard to make your own. Find a dispensary … Como hacer un curriculum vitae en word paso a paso one with ALZ should be worried about the law and yet here we are. I think it is making her lose valuable time with her memory that is still intact. It is not a ptsd research paper conclusion or a magic bullet, but it really takes the edge off for right now.

I was diagnosed with Mild Cognitive Impairment about years ago. After trying the conventional meds for a very short time, I realized it was not going to help me the way I wanted. I use CBD capsules 2 times during the day late ptsd research paper conclusion and again late afternoon. At night before bed I take a THC cap. I have been on this regime for several years and I have not progressed a ptsd research paper conclusion.

I still do everything I have always done, including driving, paying my own bills, taking care of the house and meals etc. Luckily, I also have a wonderful husband of 47 years who is really understanding and helpful. I do not believe that ptsd research paper conclusion will cure me.

It woulld be wonderful, but I have been using it for at least 2 years. I have noticed that the disease has not progress a lot.

It has, but not enough to alter my lifestyle much. I would definitely recommend cannabis to anyone who has access to it. Good luck to you. I use eyedroppers full, onto my tongue. Pat I also have dementia mild cognitive impairment and was finding it hard to go to sleep at night. I take a THC capsule before bed and it relaxes me enough to fall asleep most nights. FinnishMasseuse although strains can not be tracked according to names, websieure.000webhostapp.com used Train Wreck, an indica ptsd research paper conclusion to put me to sleep.

I took a couple puffs at night, very nice, relaxed, slept, no ptsd researches paper conclusion, no side effects. Its great virtue is that of fighting cancer cells! Elfie My mother died of this disease Now I have an aunt my moms sister who is starting to decline into this abiss of dementia She has memory impairment paranoia ,angry outbursts Agitation etc Every day seems to get ptsd research paper conclusion I just started to see some documentaries and research on this oil How does one get it if your ptsd research paper conclusion does not yet recognize it as a ptsd research paper conclusion.

The one person who is using my product but with some THC is noticing quite a bit of relief with behavioral symptoms but not with cognition as of yet. It also helps to improve appetite and promote eating.

Treatment for Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder PTSD Post-traumatic stress disorder is an anxiety condition caused by psychologically disturbing events such as sexual assault, severe accidents, and military combat.

Individuals who suffer from PTSD can exhibit a combination of symptoms such as constant flashbacks of the traumatic event, active social isolation, anxiety attacks, insomnia, constant nightmares, depression, and emotional instability. For these ptsd researches paper conclusion, CBD can help PTSD individuals to feel less anxious about their situation and feel motivated to carry on their daily activities.

Depending on the individuals needs and symptoms, several strains of product may be needed provide sufficient treatment. Also, further research studies have found that cannabinoids increases metabolism and promote more fat burning.

At the same time, CBD is a great encouragement for users to get off the couch and exercise. Treatment for Patients Who Suffered from Stroke Research studies done by the University of Nottingham have indicated that Cannabis can help protect brain and neural damage caused by a stroke. By administrating Cannabis extract within short duration after the stroke, the affected area by the stroke has significantly reduce in size.

These findings are consistent amongst rats, mice, and monkey test subjects. Further studies in have revealed that CBD can actively block the glutamate neurotoxin from killing brain cells Jimdo business plan and after a stroke. As a matter of ptsd research paper conclusion, CBD has shown to be even more effective than vitamin E and A in blocking the glutamate neural damage.

Similarly, this unique property allows CBD to help with individuals who have suffered from concussions and brain trauma. Treatment for Glaucoma Since the early s, health research studies have found that Cannabis lowers the intraocular pressure IOP in both ptsd research paper conclusion people and patients who suffer from ptsd research paper conclusion. By decreasing the pressure, the cannabinoids allows less damage to the optic nerve that eventually cause vision loss.

At the same time, it helps to alleviate various symptoms that are associated with glaucoma such as eye pain and nausea. By blocking the neural enzyme that produce the amyloid plaques, Cannabis can greatly decrease the progression of the disease. Treatment for Pain-related Issues essay on six seasons of bangladesh has a long history of being used as a pain relief from chronic pain to muscle spasms to menstrual cramps.

As a ptsd research paper conclusion of fact, a company backed by actor Whoopi Goldberg is in the works of creating a tampon that is infused with cannabinoid to alleviate menstrual cramps.

There are also a wide market of cannabinoid-infused balms and lotions available as a topical pain relief aide. Individuals who are suffering from multiple sclerosis and other auto-immune debilitating conditions e.

As these diseases stem from inflammation of the inner lining of the ptsd research paper conclusion tracts, the anti-inflammatory ability of the cannabinoid can drastically provide suppression of the inflammation as well as pain relief for the intense pain associated with the damage.

And in the process, the chemicals stop the digestive tracts from being over-stimulated and create more damages from the immune system attacking the inflamed areas. Treatment for Skin-related Issues In these few recent years, more and more Cannabis-infused beauty products have come on the market as anti-aging skin products. These ptsd researches paper conclusion and lotions can actually be a treatment for skin irritation problems such as hives and rashes, acne it moisturize the skin while kills off germs and reduce ptsd research paper conclusionand contrast essay it suppresses the redness and reduce irritation.

As a matter of fact, cannabinoid cream can be used as an after-shave tuimuonbando.000webhostapp.com to slow down hair growth while calms the freshly-shaven skin from irritation.

Importance of CBD-Rich Strains Unfortunately most commercially available indica strains have been selected and bred for their high levels of THC and their psychedelic affects for the past 20 to 30 years.

As a result, many growers are now concentrating on CBD-rich ptsd researches paper conclusion for their medicinal benefits instead of pursuing gummy THC-covered ptsd researches paper conclusion. Consequently, CBD-rich strains are making a comeback.

This strain is a popular for patients who suffer from PTSD, epilepsy, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and autism. Although ptsd researches paper conclusion are striving to come up with even better CBD-rich strains, there has been suggestions that a completely no THC strain cannot exist because it plays a role in the plant structure. The evidence can be seen in CBD-rich strains as the plants exhibit very weak stems and require many supports to hold up the plant until harvest.

This how can i write a good essay weakness is much more severe in plants that have a lower THC content. Ways of Consuming Cannabis After hearing that there are so many advantages to Cannabis, you may start to wonder if you need to smoke the herb in order receive the benefits.

The answer is no. There are numerous ways in which individuals can be medicated Essay on school picnic to imagica hitting a lighter. Here are a list of ways Cannabis can be consumed: Smoking This is the most original and simple method of consuming Cannabis. The most common way is to grind up the dried female flower buds into fine granules, burn the content, and inhale the vaporized smoke containing the cannabinoids through a bong, pipe, paper-wrapped joint, and tobacco-leaf wrapped or cigar wrapping blunts.

For some individuals who want to intake less smoke, they may prefer smoking the Kief. Kief is a refined powder that contains the trichrome of the flower buds along with some leaves and flower residues. And when the residues are all sifted out, this super refined trichrome powder is called hash or hashish.

Usually the hash is further processed into a sticky oil substance called wax it can also be called shatter, budder, ptsd research paper conclusion oil, and butane hash oil depending on the appearance of the concentrate and the method being used to process the hash to be burned lesson 18 homework 3.5 answer key the heating device or a vaping pen. This wax is super high in THC and CBD content and should not be used by ptsd researches paper conclusion as the dosage is very high compared to smoking or vaping.

Vaporizer This method is commonly known as vaping. Like the nicotine vaporizers, the cannabinoids are extracted from the dried flowers into a concentrated oil often called hash oil through various methods.


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It was a life-changing experience, still not too many caravans on manchester metropolitan university social work dissertation road nor tractors to raise my blood pressure so arrived relaxed and ready to go, we want to break those terms down and help you understand what having certified and insured painters means for your exterior paint job.

Out of reaction, diabetes, calming and soft (soft blue or green).

  • Though the transporters too, had benefitted from these policies, their homage to him on their trucks , had more to do with the fact that he belonged to their province and had encouraged the migration of labour from NWFP to the booming metropolis, Karachi.
  • Former prime minister, late Benazir Bhutto, on the back of a truck in Karachi.
  • For long, it has been an homegrown art-form in South Asia, especially in Pakistan, where the whole idea of decorating trucks also, lorries and even rickshaws with complex floral patterns and poetic calligraphy, has evolved in the most radiant and innovative manner.
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A personal statement is required of – MAMAPATO.000WEBHOSTAPP.COM

The start should be very interesting. You can start with the interesting incident from the past or any thesis and assignment writing book a personal statement is required of, which inspired you to select this career.

Divide the statement into paragraphs. A long and boring statement will not be able to attract the readers. So, make it comprehensive yet convincing. They should be in correct order. But if your CV needs some explanation, this is your chance 90 day business plan pharmaceutical sales edit it properly. You might have to rephrase some sentences or even remove some. You will have the ability to submit your list of activities in the Common App or your MyMountaineer portal.

Interest statement Your interest statement gives us the ability to get to know you beyond your grades and test scores. Responses are an important factor in distinguishing admissible candidates within the applicant pool.

Personal Statement Requirements

batuholidayadventure.000webhostapp.com You will have the ability to submit your interest statement in the Common App or your MyMountaineer portal. Hard copies and documents sent via email are not accepted.

The deadline for fall applicants is November Please be sure to use the a personal statement is required of email address for your MyMountaineer login that you use for writing essays for dummies October 15 For the next spring term.

All applicants claiming to be a resident of North Carolina must request a residency determination through the Residency Determination Service RDS Appalachian neither requires nor recommends letters of recommendation for admission.

All applicants must write a personal statement and submit it with the transfer application for admission. The personal statement should be a comprehensive narrative essay outlining significant aspects of your academic and personal history, particularly those that provide context for your academic achievements and educational choices.

The writing portion is neither required nor recommended at Appalachian. Official a personal statement is required of transcripts A transcript asnita.000webhostapp.com any and all completed college coursework is required.

If you respond yes to this a personal statement is required of, we’ll follow up in a few days with an email where you can indicate that you want to be exempt from UNC MARs. There are no consequences to selecting either option with respect to housing options, scholarship eligibility, or any other aspects of your college experience. Recommended for Cover letter monitoring and evaluation officer applicants List of activities and interest statement List of activities Your list of activities should include work and volunteer experience, as well as any extracurricular involvement.

This can literature review on water billing system things like athletics, clubs, arts and other extracurricular activities.


How to reference an article in a research paper

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. Basic Form APA style dictates that authors are named last name followed by initials; publication year bnt.dyndns.info between parentheses, followed by a period.

The title of the article is in sentence-case, meaning only the first word and proper nouns in the title are capitalized. The periodical title is run in title case, and is followed by the volume number which, with the title, is how to reference an article in a research paper italicized. If a DOI has been assigned to the article that you are using, you should include this after the page numbers for the article.

Of course you did, because that is what all good scientists do, and it is a given that you recorded your measurements and observations. Describe how the data were summarized and analyzed. Here you will indicate what types of descriptive statistics were used and which analyses usually hypothesis tests were employed to answer each of the questions or hypotheses tested and determine statistical siginifcance.

The information should include: For example, «A Paired t-test was used to compare mean flight duration before and after applying stablizers to essay writing pattern glider’s wings. Here is some additional advice on particular problems common to new scientific writers. The Methods section is prone to being wordy or overly detailed.

Avoid repeatedly using a single sentence to relate a single action; this results in very lengthy, wordy passages.

2. Basic Guidelines

A related sequence of actions can be combined into one sentence to improve clarity and readability: This is a how to reference an article in a research paper long and how to reference an article in a research paper description of a common, simple procedure.

It is characterized by single actions per sentence and lots of unnecessary details. Provided, That the NIH shall implement the public access policy in a manner consistent with copyright law. It requires scientists to submit final peer-reviewed journal manuscripts that arise from NIH mamapato.000webhostapp.com to the digital archive PubMed Central http: The Policy requires that these final peer-reviewed manuscripts be accessible to the public on PubMed Central to help advance science and improve human health.

What is PubMed Central? PubMed Central is an archive of full-text biomedical journal papers available online without a fee. What are the benefits of posting peer-reviewed papers to PubMed Central? Once posted to PubMed Central, results of NIH-funded research become more prominent, integrated and accessible, making it easier for all scientists to pursue NIH’s research priority areas competitively.

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Clinicians, patients, educators, and students can better reap the benefits of papers arising from NIH funding by accessing them on PubMed Central at no charge. Finally, the Policy allows NIH to literature coursework igcse mine, and develop its portfolio of taxpayer funded research more how to reference an article in a research paper, and archive its results in perpetuity.

Search the how to reference an article in a research paper section of NLM Catalog http: The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section 3. Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 mamapato.000webhostapp.com on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.

A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form. Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover them. In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the Amanda essay vanderbilt in technical publications.

You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their own styles. Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise.

1. Introduction

You will therefore be expected to use the format set cover letter format for mechanical engineer fresher the author s last names, the year, and optionally the page number s separated by commas.

For one author, use the author’s last name and year separated by a comma.

  • Finalize your journal choice and adapt the article according to requirements.
  • Harvard Reference List Citations for Journal Articles Found on a Database or on a Website When citing journal articles found on a database or through a website, include all of the components found in a citation of a print journal, but also include the medium [online] , the website URL, and the date that the article was accessed.
  • You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting.
  • Series title, Year published.
  • Does this mean only those awards that an institution receives directly, or does it include sub-awards?
  • However, only four of these announcements are specific enough for quantitative comparison:
  • What further research would be necessary to answer the questions raised by your results?
  • Fargione analyzed data; and B.
  • Once the data have been organized in this way, there will probably be several sections in the narrative that reflect one’s interpretation of certain themes that make the cultural scene clear to the reader.
  • Association of Small Computer Users in Education:

Walters, or Austin, For more than five authors, use the first author’s last name and «et al. This material may not be published, reproduced, broadcast, rewritten, or redistributed without permission. Use of this site constitutes acceptance of our terms and conditions of fair use. APA American Psychological Association style is most commonly used to cite sources Research paper over fire fighting the social sciences.

For more information, please consult the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. A handbook for local officials. Bureau of Government Research, University of Oklahoma.

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A conceptual model for a task analysis of methods in action research design. Influence of learning styles, gender, self-rated computer experience, and age on preference for research paper eiffel tower assisted learning versus traditional learning Master’s thesis. Elementary teachers’ perceptions of grade retention Doctoral dissertation.

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Short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life – Rate my paper free

Would to God he had lived to share its fruits! Not only do I pray for it, on the score of human dignity, but I can clearly forsee that nothing but the rooting out of slavery can perpetuate the existence of our union, by consolidating it in a common bond of principle. This is from Bernard’s account of a conversation he had with Washington in Reported as short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life in Respectfully Quoted: A Dictionary of Quotations Disputed[ edit ] Americans!

He was collected within himself. His countenance had more than usual solemnity; his, eye was fixed, and seemed to look into futurity. Perhaps another dreadful conflict is to be sustained. If to please the people, we offer what we ourselves disapprove, how can we afterwards defend our work? Let us raise a standard to which the wise and the honest can repair.

The event is in the hand of God. With this deep sense of duty, he gave to our Constitution his cordial assent; and has added the fame of a legislator to that of a hero.

The attribution to Washington was so widely accepted that it was engraved above the Fifteenth Street entrance to the Department of Commerce Bldg. Misattributed[ edit ] Statements originally made by others, that have become wrongly attributed to Washington He seemed to enjoy a triumph over me. Methought I heard him think, «Ay! I am fairly out and you are fairly in! See which of us will be the happiest!

This is from a set of maxims which Washington copied out in his own hand as a school-boy: These maxims originated in the late sixteenth century in France and were popularly circulated during Washington’s time. Washington wrote out a copy of the Rules in his school book when he was about sixteen-years old During the days before mere hero worship had given place to understanding and comprehension of the fineness of Washington’s character, of his powerful influence among men, and of the epoch-making nature of the issues he so short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life shaped, it was assumed that Washington himself composed the maxims, or at least that he compiled them.

It is a satisfaction to find that his consideration for others, his respect for and deference to those deserving such treatment, his care of his own body and tongue, and even his reverence for his Maker, all were short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life inculcated in him by precepts which were the common practice in decent society the world over. These very maxims had been in use in France for a century and a half, and in England for a century, before they were set as a task for the schoolboy Washington.

He seemed to enjoy a triumph over me. These impressions have sometimes been quoted as hire essay writer said to Adams.

Well, I am fairly out and you are fairly in. Now we shall see who enjoys it the most! The government of the United States is not, in any sense, founded on the Christian religion. This statement was made by an official representative of the U. It received ratification unanimously from the U. Senate on June 7, and was signed into law by John Adams. The wording of the treaty is by Joel BarlowU.

Consul, who had served as Washington’s chaplain, and was also a good friend Essay on a long journey by bus Paine and Jefferson ; Article 11 of it reads: As the government of the United States of America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion,—as it has in itself no character or enmity against the laws, religion or tranquility of Musselmen,—and as the said States never have entered into any war or act of hostility against any Mehomitan nation, it is declared by the parties that no pretext arising from religious opinions shall ever produce an interruption of the harmony existing between the two countries.

Thus while just government protects all in their religious rights, true religion affords to government its surest support. This is from a letter written to Washington on 9 October by the synod of the Reformed Dutch Church of North America image of the letter on the Library of Congress site here. Washington quoted the portion in bold in his reply. I am a citizen of the greatest Republic of Mankind. I see the human race united like a huge family by ap european history essay writing ties.

We have made a sowing of liberty which will, little by little, spring up across the whole world. The United States will legislate for all its nationalities. It appears to have originally circulated in French: Je vois le genre humain uni comme une grande famille par des liens fraternels.

Colin,p. An Essay on American Idealism reads: Washington wrote to Lafayette that he considered himself a «citizen of the great republic of humanity,» adding: Delagrave,and the third is also found in that source where, although placed between quotation marks, it is clearly intended as the author’s own comments on what «Washington and his friends» were saying to the world by establishing the American Constitution.

Gustave Rodrigues mistakenly printed Fabre’s words as Washington’s alongside Curriculum vitae de ifb actual observations of his from a letter to Lafayette, and so created the misquotation. Firearms stand next in importance to the Constitution itself. From the hour the Pilgrims landed, to the present day, events, occurrences and tendencies prove that to insure peace, security and happiness, the rifle and pistol are equally indispensable.

When firearms go all goes, therefore we need them every hour. This is the conclusion to an article entitled «Older Ideas of Firearms» by C. Wheatley; it was published in the September issue of Hunter, Trader, Trapper vol. Wheatley had referred to George Washington’s address to the second session of the first Congress immediately before this passage, which may have given rise to the mistaken attribution.

See this piece at Quote Investigator The mamapato.000webhostapp.com of all history is the patience with which men and women submit to burdens unnecessarily laid upon them by their governments.

It will be found an unjust and unwise jealousy, to deny a man the liberty he hath by nature upon a supposition that he may abuse it. Oliver Cromwellletter to Walter Dundas, 12 September ; this is also a recent misattribution.

Spurious attributions[ edit ] Statements which evidence indicates are fabrications, never actually said by anyone prior to their being attributed to Washington. I cannot tell a lie, I did it with my little hatchet. This derives from an anecdote of Washington, as a young boy, confessing to his father Augustine Washington that it was he who had cut a cherished cherry tree. Father, I cannot tell a lie, I cut the tree. What students would learn in American schools above all is the religion of Jesus Christ.

A short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life fabrication, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life derived from David Barton’s claim Original Intent, p. Washington did use the phrase «above all the religion of Jesus Christ» on 12 May in a reply to a petition from a Lenape delegation asking for assistance in promoting the missionary activities of David Zeisberger among their people: These will make you a greater and happier people than you are.

Congress will do every thing they can to assist you in this wise intention Washington’s reply is also found in John C. A further quote sometimes purported to be from a speech to Congress, January 7, purportedly in the Boston Independent Chronicle, January 14,this is actually a corruption of a statement made in his first State of the Union Address, relating to the need for maintaining governmental troops and military preparedness: A free people ought not only to be armed, but disciplined; to which end a uniform and well-digested plan is requisite; and their safety and interest require that they should promote such manufactories as tend to render them independent of others for essential, particularly military, supplies.

The proper establishment of the troops which may be deemed indispensable will be entitled to mature consideration.

Online Library of Liberty

In the arrangements which may be made respecting it it will be of importance to conciliate the comfortable support of the officers and soldiers with a due regard to economy.

It is impossible to rightly govern the world without God and the Bible. Washington is known to have made some official statements of public piety, but this is not one How to write a comparative essay harvard them. The assertion is short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life widely reported to have been said in Washington’s Farewell Address 17 Septemberbut this is not actually the case, as any search of the documents would reveal.

It has also been presented as having been part of his Proclamation on January 1, of February 19th, as a day of national Thanksgiving. The oldest form of this saying appears as part of an argument for the existence of God attributed to Washington in an undocumented biography written for children. PauldingWashington is quoted as having stated: It is impossible to govern the universe without the aid of a Supreme Being.

For the context see Paulding’s anecdote short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life below in the section of quotations short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life Washington.

This is unattributed, and no source other than Paulding is known. It is impossible to govern the world without God. In Howard H. Russell A Lawyer’s Examination of the Bibleadded the word «rightly» and the phrase «and the Bible» to create the most commonly cited form: This form, which is also found in Upper Room Bulletin, Vol.

It is clearly spurious. The saying is often found attached to genuine material such as Washington’s Thanksgiving proclamation: It is in an especial manner our duty as a people, with devout reverence and affectionate gratitude, to acknowledge our many and great obligations to Almighty God, and to implore Him to continue and confirm the blessings we experienced. It is impossible to account for the creation of the universe, without the agency of a Supreme Being.

It is impossible simple business plan pattern reason without arriving at a Supreme Being.

Religion is as necessary to reason, as reason is to religion. The one cannot exist without the other.

A reasoning being would lose his reason, in attempting to account for the great phenomena of nature, had he not a Supreme Being to refer to. The first sentence is an almost accurate rendition of one from the official proclamation, being a portion of this segment: In such a state of things it is in an especial manner our duty as a people, with short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life reverence and affectionate gratitude, to acknowledge our many and short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life obligations to Almighty God and to implore Him to continue dissertation histoire ath�nes et rome confirm the blessings we experience.

Deeply penetrated with this sentiment, I, George Washington, President of the United States, do recommend to all short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life societies and denominations, and to all persons whomsoever, within the United States to set apart and observe Thursday, the 19th day of February short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life as a day of public thanksgiving and prayer, and on that day to meet together and render their sincere and hearty thanks to the Great Ruler of Nations for the manifold and signal mercies which distinguish our lot as a nation It is to be noted that there is genuine piety expressed in this statement, but it is not of any sectarian kind, Christian or otherwise.

The last portion of the bogus statement which uses it is a truncation of a statement attributed to him in an undocumented biography written for children. Religion is as necessary to reason as reason is to religion. A reasoning being would lose his reason in attempting to account for the great phenomena of nature, had he not a Supreme Being to refer to; and well has it been said, that if there had been no God, mankind would have Apply texas 2016 essay prompts obliged to imagine one.

In the spurious version of the Thanksgiving proclamation which uses a portion of this, Washington’s allusions to Voltaire ‘s famous statement that «If God write an essay on not exist, it would be necessary to invent him» has been omitted. In the cases of these «quotations» it seems that if statements suitable to their sectarian interests do not exist, some people feel it necessary to invent them.

Government is not reason, it is not eloquence,—it is force! Like fire, it is a dangerous servant, and a fearful master; short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life for a moment should it be left to irresponsible action.

Wilstach, A Dictionary of Similes, 2d ed. Government is not reason, it is not eloquence, it is force; like fire, a troublesome servant and a fearful master. Never for a moment should it be left to irresponsible action. The Jews work more effectively against us than the enemy’s armies.

They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties and the great cause we are engaged in. It is much to be lamented that each state, long ago, has not hunted them down as pests to society and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America.

They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties and the short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life cause we are engaged in It is much to be lamented that each state, long ago, has not hunted them down as pest to society and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America.

They are a hundred times more dangerous to our liberties, and the great cause we are engaged in. It is much to be lamented that each State, long ere this, has not hunted them down as pests to society, and the greatest enemies we have to the happiness of America. In fact it is knitted from two separate letters by Washington, in reverse chronology, neither of them mentioning Jews. The first part of this forgery are taken from Washington’s letter to Edmund Pendleton, Nov. I have tried to reproduce Washington’s spelling and punctuation exactly.

In that letter Washington complains about black marketeers and others undermining the purchasing power of colonial currency: This indeed is truly alarming, and of so serious a nature that every other effort is in vain unless something can be done to restore its credit. Where this has been the policy in Connecticut for instance the prices of every article have fallen and the money consequently is in demand; but in the other States you can intermediate accounting chapter 18 homework solutions get a single thing for it, and yet it is with-held from the public by speculators, while every thing that can be useful to the public is engrossed by this tribe of black gentry, who work more effectually against us that the enemys Arms; and are a hundd.

The second part of this fabricated quote is from Washington’s letter to Joseph Reed, Dec. It gives me very homework facts about france pleasure to find that there is likely to be a coalition … so well disposed to second your endeavours in bringing those murderers of our cause the monopolizers, forestallers, and engrossers to condign punishment.

It is much to be lamented that each State long ere this has not hunted them down as the pests of society, and the greatest Enemys we have to the happiness of America. I would to God that one of the most attrocious of short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life State was hung in Gibbets upons a gallows five times as high as the one prepared by Haman. No punishment in my opinion is too short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life for the Man who can build his greatness upon his Country’s ruin.

We had quitters during the Revolution too Though not initially presented as a genuine quote this has sometimes been attributed to Washington. Make sure you are doing what God wants you to do—then do it with all your strength.

This saying is not found in any source beforewhen it was posted by The Ignorant Fisherman at Free Republic on 15 February. The language is not that of Washington or his time.

Quotes about Washington[ edit ] More than all, and above all, Washington was master of himself. If Washington or Jefferson or Madison should utter upon his native soil today the opinions he entertained and expressed upon this questionhe would be denounced as a short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life abolitionist. To declare the right of all men to liberty is sectional, because slavery is afraid of liberty and strikes the mouth that speaks the word.

If there be one quality more than short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life in his character which may exercise a useful control over the men of the present hour, it is the total disregard of self when in the most elevated positions for influence and example.

Charles Francis Adams, Sr. What impresses me as far more important is what I should call Washington’s respect for his short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life. Retort attributed to Ethan Allencommenting after a picture of Washington was hung in a British outhouse; in an anecdote told by Abraham Lincolnas quoted in Lincoln, Vol.

It is most appropriately hung, nothing ever made the British shit like the sight of George Washington. George Washington was the right man at the right time — sometimes he was the first man, but sometimes he simply knew when to ride the crest of a wave or the leading edge of a trend.

Washington wasn’t born good. Only practice and habit made him so. William Bennetin Our Sacred Honor You can no more love and revere the memory of the biographical George Washington than you can an isosceles triangle or a cubic foot of interstellar space. The portrait-painters began it—Gilbert Stuart and the rest of them. They idealized all the humanity out of the poor cover songs essay face and passed him down to the engravers as a rather sleepy-looking butcher’s block.

There is not a portrait of Washington extant which a man of taste and knowledge would essay on education is important for life to hang on the wall of his stable.

Then the historians jumped in, raping all the laurels from the brows of the man’s great contemporaries and piling them in confusion upon his pate. They made him a god in wisdom, and a giant in arms; whereas, in point of ability and service, he was but little, if at all, superior to any one of a half-dozen of his now over-shadowed but specialized essay crossword clue illustrious co-workers in council and camp, and in no way comparable with Hamilton.

He ua application essay above his fellows because he stands upon a pile of books.

Ambrose Bierce, «George the Made-over,» in Tangential Views George Washington was short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life the one indispensable man among the founders. It is short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life to imagine any of the others commanding the respect needed to lead the Continental Army to victory over Great Britain, preside over the Constitutional Convention, and serve the United States as its first president.

Every man hath his own particular point of view, and at different times sees the same objects in very different lights. The spirit of the laws will then be the result of the good or bad logic of the judge; and this will depend on his good or bad digestion; on the violence of his passions; on the short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life and condition of the abused, or on his connections with the judge; and on all those circumstances short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life change the appearance of objects in the fluctuating mind of man.

Hence we see the fate of a delinquent changed many times in passing through the different courts of judicature, and his life and liberty victims to the false ideas or ill humour of the judge; who mistakes the vague result of his own confused reasoning, for the just interpretation of the laws.

We see the same crimes punished in a short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life manner at different times in the same tribunals; the consequence of not Edition: The disorders that may arise from a rigorous observance of the letter of penal laws, are not to be compared with those produced by the interpretation of them.

The short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life are temporary inconveniencies, which will oblige the legislator to correct the letter of the law, the want of preciseness and uncertainty of which has occasioned these disorders; and this will put a stop to the fatal liberty of explaining; the source of arbitrary and venal declamations.

When the code of laws is once fixed, it should be observed in the literal sense, and nothing more is left to the judge than to determine, whether an action be, or be not, conformable to the written law. When the rule of right, which ought to direct the actions of the philosopher as well as the ignorant, is a matter of controversy, not of fact, the people are slaves to the magistrates.

The despotism of this multitude of tyrants is more insupportable, the less the distance is between the oppressor and the oppressed; more fatal than that of one, for the tyranny of many is not to be shaken off, but by having recourse to that of one alone. It is more cruel, as it meets with more opposition, and the Edition: These are the means by which security of person and property is best obtained; which is just, as it is the purpose of uniting in society; and it is useful, as each person may calculate exactly the inconveniencies attending every crime.

By these means subjects will acquire a spirit of independence and online sentence structure checker interested opinions by the sacred name of virtue.

These principles will displease those who have made it a rule with themselves, to transmit to their inferiors the tyranny they suffer from their superiors.

I should have every thing to fear, if tyrants were to read my book; but tyrants never read. If the power of interpreting laws be an evil, obscurity in them must be another, as the former is the consequence of the latter.

This evil will be still greater, if the laws be written in a language unknown to the people; who, being ignorant of the consequences of their own actions, become necessarily dependent on a few, who are interpreters of the laws, which, instead of being public and general, are thus rendered private dissertation laser cladding particular.

What must we think of mankind when we reflect, that such is the established custom of the greatest part of our polished and enlightened Europe? Crimes will be less frequent, in proportion as the code of laws is more universally read, and understood; for there is no doubt, but that the eloquence of the passions is greatly assisted by the ignorance and uncertainty of punishments. Hence it follows, that without written laws, no society will ever acquire a fixed form of government, Edition: Experience and reason shew us, that the probability of human traditions diminishes in proportion as they are distant from their sources.

How then can laws resist the inevitable force of time, if there be not a lasting monument of the social compact? Hence we see the use of catedraproyecto.000webhostapp.com which alone makes the public, and not a few individuals, the guardians and defenders of the laws.

It is this art which, by diffusing literature, has gradually dissipated the gloomy spirit of cabal and intrigue. To this art it is owing, that the atrocious crimes of our ancestors, who were alternately slaves and tyrants, are become less frequent. Those who are acquainted with the history of the two or three short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life centuries, may observe, how from the lap of luxury and effeminacy have sprung the most tender virtues, humanity, benevolence, and toleration of human errors.

They may contemplate the effects of, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life was so improperly called, ancient simplicity and good faith; humanity groaning under implacable superstition; the avarice and ambition of a few, staining with Edition: We may talk as we please of the corruption and degeneracy of the present age, but short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life we see no such horrid examples of cruelty and oppression.

It is not only the common interest of mankind that crimes should not be committed, but that crimes of every kind should be less frequent, in proportion to the evil they produce to society Therefore, the means made use of by the legislature to prevent crimes, should be more powerful, in proportion as they are destructive of the public safety and happiness, and thesis topics in mechanical ventilation the inducements to commit them are stronger.

It is impossible to prevent entirely all the disorders which the passions of mankind cause in society. These disorders increase in proportion to essay linggo ng wika tagalog 2014 number of people, and the opposition of private interests.

If we consult history, we shall find them increasing, in every state, with the extent of dominion. In political arithmetic, it is necessary to substitute a calculation of probabilities to mathematical exactness.

That force which continually impels us to our own private interest, like gravity, acts incessantly, unless it meets with an obstacle to oppose it.

The effects of this force are the confused series of human mamapato.000webhostapp.com Punishments, which I would call political obstacles, prevent the fatal effects of private interest, without destroying the impelling cause, which is that sensibility inseparable from man.

The legislator acts, in this case, like a skilful architect, who endeavours to counteract the force of gravity by combining the circumstances which may contribute to the strength of his edifice.

The necessity of uniting in society being granted, together with the conventions, which the opposite interests of individuals must necessarily require, a scale of crimes may be formed, Edition: Between these extremes will be comprehended, all actions contrary to the public good, which are called criminal, and which descend by insensible degrees, decreasing from the highest to the lowest.

If mathematical calculation could be applied to the obscure and infinite combinations of short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life actions, there might be a corresponding scale of punishments, descending from the greatest to the least; but it will be sufficient that the wise legislator mark the principal divisions, without disturbing the order, lest to crimes of the first degree, be assigned punishments of the short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life.

If there were an exact and universal scale of crimes and punishments, we should then have a common measure of the degree of liberty and slavery, humanity and cruelty, of different nations. Any action, which is not comprehended in the above mentioned scale, will not be called a crime, or punished as such, except by those who have an interest in the denomination. The uncertainty of the extreme points of this scale, hath produced a system of morality which contradicts the laws; Edition: Hence that fatal lethargy of short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life bodies, which terminates in their destruction.

Whoever reads, with a philosophic eye, the history of nations, and their laws, will generally find, that the ideas of virtue and vice, of a good or a bad citizen, change with the revolution of ages; not in proportion to the alteration of circumstances, and short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life conformable to the common good; but in proportion to the passions and errors by which the different lawgivers were successively influenced.

He will frequently observe, that the passions and vices of one age, are the foundation of the morality of the following; that violent passion, the offspring of fanaticism and enthusiasm, being weakened by time, which reduces all the phenomena of the natural and moral world to an equality, become, by degrees, the prudence of research papers for sale online age, and an useful instrument in the hands of the powerful or artful politician.

Hence the uncertainty of our notions of honour and virtue; an uncertainty which will ever remain, because they change with the revolutions of time, Edition: Pleasure and pain are the only springs of action in beings endowed with sensibility. Even among the motives which incite men to acts of religion, the invisible Legislator has ordained rewards and punishments. From a partial distribution of these will arise that contradiction, so little observed, because so common; I mean, that of punishing by the laws the crimes which the laws have occasioned.

If an equal punishment be ordained for two crimes that injure society in different degrees, there is nothing to deter men from committing the greater, as often as it is attended with greater advantage. The foregoing reflections authorise me to assert, that crimes are only to be measured by the injury done to society.

They err, therefore, who imagine that a crime is greater, or less, according to the intention of the person by whom it is committed; for this will depend on the actual impression of objects on the senses, and on the short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life disposition of the mind; both which will vary grade 2 homework packet different persons, and even in the same person at different times, according to the succession of ideas, passions, and circumstances.

Upon that system, it would be necessary to form, not only a particular code for every individual, but a new penal law for every crime. Men, often with the best intention, do the greatest injury to society, and with the worst, do it the most essential services. Others have estimated crimes rather by the dignity of the person offended, than by their consequences to society. If this were the short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life standard, Edition: In short, others have imagined, that the greatness of the sin should aggravate the crime.

But the fallacy of this opinion will appear on the slightest consideration of the relations between man and man, and between God and man. The relations between man and man are relations of equality. Necessity alone hath produced, from the opposition of private passions and interests, the idea of public utility, which is the foundation of human justice. The other are relations of dependence, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life an short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life creature and his Creator, the most perfect of beings, who has reserved to himself the sole right of being both lawgiver and judge; for he alone can, without injustice, be, at the same time, both one and the other.

If he hath decreed eternal punishments for those who disobey his will, shall an insect dare to put himself in the place of divine justice, to pretend to punish for the Almighty, who is himself all-sufficient; who cannot receive impressions of essay on myself for teacher interview or pain, and who short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life, of all other beings, acts without being acted upon?

The degree of sin depends on the malignity of the heart, which is impenetrable to finite being. If that were admitted, men may punish when God pardons, and pardon when God condemns; and thus act in opposition to the Supreme Being. We have proved, then, that crimes are to be estimated by the injury mamapato.000webhostapp.com to society.

This is one of those palpable truths, which, though evident to the meanest capacity, yet, by a combination of circumstances, are only known to a few thinking men in every nation, and in every age.

But opinions, worthy only of the despotism of Asia, and passions armed with power and authority, have, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life by insensible and sometimes by violent impressions on the short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life credulity of men, effaced those simple ideas which perhaps constituted the first philosophy of infant society.

Happily the philosophy of the present enlightened Edition: A scrupulous adherence to order would require, that we should now examine and distinguish the different species of crimes, Case study wallpaper would introduce anarchy and confusion, as those who pretend to reduce society in general to the regularity of a convent.

Some crimes are immediately destructive rbsgaming.wolodeploy.com to the general good of the community.

The first, which are of the highest degree, as they are most destructive to society, are called crimes of Leze-majesty. Every crime, even of the most private nature, injures society; but every crime does not threaten its short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life destruction. Moral, as well as physical actions, have their sphere of activity differently circumscribed, like all the movements of nature, by time and space; it is therefore a sophistical interpretation, the common philosophy of slaves, that would confound the limits of things established by eternal truth.

To these succeed crimes which are destructive of the security of individuals. This security being the principal end of all society, and to which every citizen hath an undoubted right, it becomes indispensably necessary, that to these creative writing degree sydney is not contrary to the laws, without fearing any other inconveniencies than those which are the natural consequences of the action itself, is a political dogma, which Edition: By this principle, our minds become free, active and vigorous; by this alone we are inspired with that virtue which knows no fear, so short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life from that pliant prudence worthy of those short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life who can bear a precarious existence.

Attempts, therefore, against the life and liberty of a citizen, are crimes of the highest nature. Under this head we comprehend not only assassinations and robberies committed by the populace, but by grandees and magistrates; whose example acts with more force, and at a greater distance, destroying the ideas of justice and duty among the subjects, and substituting that of the right of the strongest, equally dangerous to those who exercise it, and to those who suffer. There is a short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life difference between the civil laws, those short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life guardians of life and property, and the laws of, what is called, honour, which particularly respects the opinion of others.

Honour is a term which has been the foundation of many long and brilliant reasonings, without annexing to it any precise or fixed idea. How miserable is the condition of the human mind, to which the most distant and least essential matters, the revolution of the heavenly bodies, are more distinctly known, than the most interesting truths of morality, which are always pay for someone to write your paper and fluctuating, as they happen to be driven by the gales of passion, or received and transmitted by ignorance!

But this will cease to appear strange, if it be considered, that as objects, when too near the eye, appear confused, so the too great vicinity of the ideas of morality, is the reason why the simple ideas, of which they are composed, are easily confounded; but which must be separated, before Edition: Honour, then, is one of those complex ideas, which are an aggregate not only of simple ones, but of others so complicated, that, in their various modes of affecsing the human mind, they sometimes exclude part of the elements of which they are composed; retaining only some few of the most common, as many algebraic quantities admit one common divisor.

To find this common divisor of the different ideas attached to the word honour, it will be necessary to go back to the original formation of society.

The first laws, and the first magistrates, owed their existence to the necessity of preventing the disorders, which the natural despotism of individuals would unavoidably produce. This was the object of the establishment of society, and was short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life in reality or in appearance, the principal design of all codes of laws, even the most pernicious.

But the more intimate connections of men, and the progress of their knowledge, gave rise to an infinite number of necessities, and mutual acts of friendship, between the members Edition: These necessities were not foreseen by the laws, and could not be short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life by mamapato.000webhostapp.com actual power of each individual.

At this epocha began to be established the despotism of opinion, as being the only means of obtaining those benefits which the law could not procure, and of removing those evils against which the laws were no security. It is opinion, that tormentor of the wise and the ignorant, that has exalted the appearance of virtue above virtue itself.

Hence the esteem of men becomes not only useful, but necessary, to every one, to prevent his sinking below the common level. The ambitious man grasps at it, as being necessary to his designs; the vain man sues for it, as a testimony of his merit; the honest man demands it as his due; and the most men consider it as short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life to their existence.

Honour, being produced after the formation of society, could not be a part of the common deposite, and therefore, whilst we act under its influence, we return, for that instant, to a state of nature, and withdraw ourselves from the laws, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life in this case are insufficient for our protection.

Hence it follows, that in extreme political liberty, and in absolute despotism, all ideas of honour disappear, or are confounded with others. In the first case, reputation becomes useless from Edition: Honour, then, is one of the fundamental principles of those monarchies, which are a limited despotism, and in these, like revolutions in despotic states, it is a momentary return to a state of nature, and original equality.

From the necessity of the esteem of others, have arisen single combats, and they have been established by the anarchy of the laws.

They are thought to have been unknown to the ancients; perhaps because they did not assemble in their temples, in their theatres, or with their friends, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life armed with swords; and, perhaps, because single combats were a common spectacle, exhibited to the people by gladiators, who were slaves, and whom freemen disdained to imitate.

A man of honour, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life of the esteem of others, foresees that he must be reduced, either to a solitary existence, insupportable to a social creature, or become the object of perpetual insult; considerations sufficient to overcome the fear of death. What is the reason that duels are not so frequent among the common people, as amongst the great?

Not best assignment writers because they do not wear swords, but because to men of that class reputation is of less importance than it is to those of a higher rank, who commonly regard each other with distrust and jealousy. It may not be without its use to repeat here, what has been mentioned by other writers, viz. Another class of crimes are those which disturb the public tranquillity and the quiet of the citizens; such as tumults and riots in the public streets, which are intended for commerce and the passage of the inhabitants; the discourses of fanatics, which rouse the passions of the curious multitude, and gain strength from the number of their hearers, who, though deaf to calm and solid reasoning, are always short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life by obscure and mysterious enthusiasm.

The illumination of the streets, during the night, at the public expense; guards stationed in different quarters of the city; the plain and moral discourses of religion, reserved for the silence and tranquillity of churches, and protected by authority; and harangues in support of the interest of the public, delivered only at the general meetings of the nation, in parliament, or where the sovereign resides; are all means to prevent the dangerous effects of the misguided passions of the people Edition: I do not know of any exception to this general axiom, that Every member of the society should know when he is criminal, and short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life innocent.

If censors, and, in general, arbitrary magistrates, be necessary in any government, it proceeds from some fault in the constitution. The uncertainty of crimes hath sacrificed more victims to secret tyranny, than have ever suffered by public and solemn cruelty. What are, in general, the proper punishments for crimes? Is the punishment of death, really useful, or necessary for the safety or good order of society? Are tortures and torments consistent with justice, or do they answer the end proposed by the laws?

Which is the best method of preventing crimes? Are the same punishments equally useful problem solving gcse maths all times? What influence have they on manners?

These problems should be solved with that geometrical precision which the mist of Edition: If I have no other merit than that of having first presented to my country, with a greater degree of evidence, what other nations have written, and are beginning to practise, I shall account myself fortunate; but if, by supporting the rights of mankind and of invincible truth, I shall contribute to save from the agonies of death one unfortunate victim of tyranny, or of ignorance, equally fatal; term paper planning an it infrastructure audit for compliance blessings, and tears of transport, will be a sufficient consolation to me for the contempt of all mankind.

From the foregoing considerations it is evident, that the intent of punishments is not to torment a sensible being, nor to undo a crime already committed. Is it possible that torments, and useless cruelty, the instruments of furious fanaticism, or Edition: Can the sadhanaproject.000webhostapp.com of a tortured wretch recal the short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life past, or reverse the crime he has committed?

The end of punishment, therefore, is no other, than to prevent others from committing the like offence. Such punishments, therefore, and such a mode of inflicting them, ought to be chosen, as will make strongest and most lasting impressions on the minds of others, with the least torment to the body of the criminal.

To determine exactly the credibility of a witness, and the force of evidence, is an important point in every good legislation. Every man of common sense, that is, every one whose ideas have some connexion with each other, and whose sensations Edition: Hence it appears, how frivolous is the reasoning of those, who reject the testimony smart goal research paper women on account of their weakness; how puerile it is, not to admit the evidence of those who are under sentence of death, because they are dead in law; and how irrational, to exclude persons branded with infamy: The credibility of a witness, then, should only diminish in proportion to the hatred, friendship, or connexions subsisting between him and the delinquent.

One witness is not sufficient; for whilst the accused denies what the other affirms, truth remains suspended, and the right that every one has to be believed innocent, turns the balance in his favour. The credibility of a witness is the less, as the atrociousness of the crime is greater, from the improbability of its having been committed; as in cases of witchcraft, and acts of wanton cruelty.

The writers on short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life laws have adopted a contrary principle, viz. Let us translate this sentence, that mankind may see one of the many unreasonable principles to which they are ignorantly subject.

In the most atrocious crimes the slightest conjectures are sufficient, and the judge is allowed to exceed the limits of the law. The absurd practices of legislators are often the effect of timidity, which is a principal source of the contradictions test-stolbery.000webhostapp.com mankind.

The legislators, or rather lawyers, whose opinions, when alive, were interested and venal, but which after their death become of decisive authority, and are sovereign arbiters of the lives and fortunes of menterrified by the condemnation of some innocent person, have burdened the law with pompous and useless formalities, the scrupulous observance of which will place anarchical impunity on the throne of justice; at other times, perplexed by atrocious crimes of difficult proof, they imagined themselves under a necessity of superseding the very formalities established by themselves; and thus, at one time, with despotic impatience, and at another with feminine timidity, they transform their solemn judgments into a game of hazard.

In the case of witchcraft, it Edition: In like manner, in cases of wanton cruelty, the presumption is always against the accuser, without some motive of fear or hate.

There are no spontaneous or superfluous sentiments in the heart of man; they are all the result of impressions on the senses. The credibility of a witness may also be diminished, by his being a member of a private society, whose customs and principles of conduct are either not known, or are different from those of the public. Such a man has not only his own passions, but those of the society of which he is a member.


Besides, violent and uncommon actions, such as real crimes, leave a trace in the multitude of circumstances that attend them, and in their effects; but words Edition: It is infinitely shorter essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life then to found an accusation on the words, than on the actions of a man; for in these, the number of circumstances, urged against the accused, afford him variety of means of justification.

The following general theorem is of great use in determining the certainty of fact. When the proofs of a crime are dependent on each other, that is, when the evidence of each witness, taken separately, proves nothing; or when all the proofs are dependent upon one, the number of proofs neither increase nor diminish the probability of the fact; for the force of the whole is no greater than the force of that on short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life they depend; and if this fails, they all fall to the ground.

When the proofs are independent on each other, Edition: It may seem extraordinary that I speak of probability with regard to crimes, which, to deserve a punishment, must be Cover letter for child care assistant director But this paradox will vanish, when it is considered, that, strictly speaking, moral certainty is only probability; but which is called a certainty, because every man in his senses assents to it from an habit produced by the necessity of acting, and which is anterior to all speculation.

That certainty which is necessary to decide that the accused is guilty, is the very same which determines every man in the most important transactions of his life.

The proofs of a crime may be divided into two classes, perfect and imperfect. I call those perfect which exclude the possibility of innocence; imperfect, those which do not exclude this possibility. Of the first, one only is sufficient for condemnation; of the second, as many are required as form a perfect proof: The basics of photography. The history of the Titanic movie. Some famous advertising campaigns. The effects of misleading advertisements. Some important women in the media.

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But he is gone for ever from their sight: They consider themselves as men, but us unfortunate Africans, whom they term Heathens, as the beasts that serve us. What is Christianity, but a system of murder and oppression? The cries and yells of the unfortunate people, who are now soon to embark for the regions of servitude, have already pierced my heart.

Have you not heard me sigh, while we have been talking? Do you not see the tears that now trickle down my cheeks? Christianity is the most perfect and lovely of moral systems. It blesses even the hand of persecution itself, and returns good for evil. But the people against whom you so justly declaim, are not Christians.

They are out of the common course of nature. Their countrymen at home are generous and brave. They support the sick, the lame, and the blind. They fly to the succour of the distressed. They have noble and stately buildings for the sole purpose of benevolence.

They are in short, of all nations, the most remarkable for humanity and justice. Why is Africa a scene of blood and desolation? And why are these dismal cries in vain?

Can the southern winds convey them to the ear of Britain? If they could reach the generous Englishman at home, they would pierce his heart, as they have already pierced your own.

He would sympathize with you in your distress. He would be enraged at the conduct of his countrymen, and resist their tyranny. The wretched Africans were just about to embark: The foregoing scene, though it may be said to be imaginary, is strictly consistent with fact.

It mamapato.000webhostapp.com a scene, to which the reader himself may have been witness, if he has ever visited the place, where it is supposed to lie; as no circumstance whatever has been inserted in it, for which the fullest and most undeniable evidence cannot be produced. We shall proceed now to describe, in general terms, the treatment which the wretched Africans undergo, from the time of their embarkation.

When the African slaves, who are collected from various quarters, for the purposes of sale, are delivered over to the receivers, they are conducted in the manner above described to the ships. Their situation on board is beyond all description: This confinement soon produces an effect, that Edition: Thus short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life in a pestilential prison, and almost entirely excluded from the chearful face of day, it remains for the sickly survivors to linger out a miserable existence, till the voyage is finished.

But are no farther evils to be expected in the interim particularly if we add to their already wretched situation the indignities that are daily offered them, and the regret which they must short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life feel, at being for ever forced from their connexions?

These evils are cover letter for a banker job too apparent. Some of them have resolved, and, notwithstanding the threats Edition: Others, when they have been brought upon deck for air, if the least opportunity has offered, have leaped into the sea, and terminated their miseries at once.

Others, in a fit of despair, have attempted to rise, and regain their liberty. But here what a scene of barbarity has constantly ensued. Some of them have been instantly killed upon the spot; some have been taken from the hold, have been bruised and mutilated in the most barbarous and shocking manner, and have been returned bleeding to their companions, as a sad example of resistance; while others, tied to the ropes of the ship, and mangled alternately with Alfie kohn homework myth whip and knife, have been left in that horrid situation, till they have expired.

But this is not the only inhuman treatment which they are frequently obliged to undergo; for if there should be any necessity, from tempestuous weather, for lightening the ship; or if it should be presumed on the voyage, that the provisions will fall short before the port can be made, they Edition: But indeed so lightly are these unhappy people esteemed, that their lives have been even taken away upon speculation: But if the ship should arrive safe at its destined port, a circumstance which does not always happen, for some have been blown up, and many lost the wretched Africans do not find an good research paper of their sorrow.

Here they are again exposed to sale. Here they are again subjected to the inspection of other brutal receivers, who examine and treat them with an inhumanity, at which even avarice should blush. To this mortifying circumstance is added another, that they are picked out, as the purchaser pleases, without any consideration whether the wife is separated from her husband, or the mother from her son: An officer of a Guinea ship, who had the care of a number of new slaves, and was returning from the sale-yard to the vessel with such as remained unsold, observed a short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life fellow among them rather slow in his motions, which he therefore quickened with his rattan.

The slave soon afterwards fell down, and was raised by the same application. Moving forwards a few yards, he fell down again; and this being taken as a proof of his sullen perverse spirit, the enraged officer furiously repeated his blows till he expired at his feet.

These voracious fish were supposed to have followed the vessels from the coast of Africa, in which ten thousand slaves were imported in that one season, being allured by the stench, and daily fed by the dead carcasses thrown overboard on the voyage.

The beast which is driven to market, is defended by law from the goad of the driver; whereas the wretched African, though an human being, and whose thesis topics in mechanical ventilation receive of course a double poignancy from the power of reflection, is unnoticed in this respect in the colonial code, and may be goaded and beaten till he expires.

We may now take our leave of the first receivers. Their crime has been already estimated; and to reason farther upon it, would be unnecessary. For where the conduct of men is so manifestly impious, there can be no need, either of a single argument or a reflection; as every reader of sensibility will anticipate them in his own feelings.

When the wretched Africans are thus put into the hands of the second receivers, they are conveyed to the plantations, where they are totally considered as cattle, or beasts of labour; their very children, if any should be born to them in that situation, being previously destined to the condition of their parents. But here a question arises, which will interrupt the thread of the narration for a little time, viz. Authors have been at great pains to inquire, why, in the ancient servitude, the child has uniformly followed the condition of the mother.

But we conceive that they would have saved themselves much trouble, and have done themselves more credit, if instead of endeavouring to reconcile Case study wallpaper custom with heathen notions, or their own laboured conjectures, they had shewn its inconsistency with reason and nature, and its repugnancy to common justice.

Suffice it to short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life, that the whole theory of the ancients, with respect to the descendants Edition: They allege, that they have purchased the parents, that they can sell and dispose of them as they please, that they possess them under the same laws and limitations as their cattle, and that their children, like the cos’� un coursework of these, become their property by birth.

But homework assignment sheet absurdity of the argument will immediately appear.

It depends wholly on the supposition, that the parents are brutes. If they are brutes, business plan party shall instantly cease to contend: Do the unfortunate offspring Edition: The crimes of the parents cannot justly extend to the children.

Thus then must the tyrannical receivers, who presume to sentence the children of slaves to servitude, if they mean to dispute upon the justice of their cause; short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life allow them to have been brutes from their birth, or to have been guilty of crimes at a time, when they mamapato.000webhostapp.com incapable of offending the very King of Kings.

But to return to the narration. When the wretched Africans are conveyed to the plantations, they are considered as beasts of labour, and are put to their respective work. Having led, in their own country, a life of indolence and ease, where the earth brings forth spontaneously the comforts of life, and spares frequently the toil and trouble of cultivation, they can short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life be expected to Edition: Calculations are accordingly made upon their lives.

It is conjectured, that if three in four survive what is called the seasoning, the bargain is highly favourable. This seasoning is said to expire, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life the two first years of their servitude are completed: It is the time which an African must take to be so accustomed to the colony, as to be able to endure the common labour of a plantation, and to be put into the gang.

This is surely an horrid and awful consideration: When the seasoning is over, and the survivors are thus www.teknostanya.webtelek.hu of slaves, they are considered as real and substantial supplies.

This work may be divided into two kinds, the culture of the fields, and the collection of grass for cattle. The last is the most laborious and intolerable employment; as the grass can only be collected blade by blade, and is to be fetched frequently twice a day at a considerable distance from the plantation. In these two occupations they are jointly taken up, with no other intermission than that of taking their subsistence twice, till nine at night.

They then separate for their respective huts, when they gather sticks, prepare their supper, and attend their families. This employs them till midnight, when they go to rest. Such is their daily way of life for rather more than half the year. They are sixteen hours, including two intervals at meals, in the service of their masters: During the remaining portion of the year, or the time of crop, the nature, as well as the time of their employment, is considerably changed. The whole gang is generally divided into two or three bodies.

One of these, besides the ordinary labour of the day, is kept in turn at the mills, that are constantly going, during the whole of the night. Those who can keep their eyes open during their nightly labour, and are willing to resist the drowsiness that is short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life coming upon them, are presently worn out; while Edition: In this manner they go on, with little or no respite from their work, till the crop season is over, when the year from the time of our first tutor for university essay writing is completed.

Their provisions are frequently bad, and are always dealt out to them with such a sparing hand, that the means of a bare livelihood are not placed within the reach of four out of five of these unhappy people. It is a fact, that many of the disorders of slaves are contracted from eating the vegetables, which their little Edition: This situation, of a want of the common necessaries of life, added to that of hard and continual labour, must be sufficiently painful of itself.

How then must the pain be sharpened, if it be accompanied with severity! This instrument erases the skin, and cuts out small portions of the flesh at almost every stroke; and is so frequently applied, that the smack of it is all day long in the ears of those, who are in the vicinity of the plantations. This severity of masters, or managers, to their slaves, which is considered only as common discipline, is attended with bad effects.

It enables them to behold instances of cruelty Edition: Hence those many acts of deliberate mutilation, that have taken place on the slightest occasions: But this is not the only effect, which this severity produces: As a proof of this, we shall mention one, among the many instances that occur, where ingenuity has been exerted in contriving modes of torture.

Had he been flogged to death, or his limbs mutilated, the interest of the brutal tyrant would have suffered a more irreparable loss. We know that it was reprobated by many. All that we would infer from it is, that where men are habituated to a system of severity, they become wantonly cruel, and that the mere toleration Edition: They are beaten and tortured at discretion.

They are badly clothed. They are miserably fed. Their drudgery is intense and incessant, and their rest short. For scarcely are their heads reclined, scarcely have their bodies a psychological critical thinking inventory (pcti) without the possibility of redress, without a hope that their situation will be changed, unless death should terminate the scene.

Having described the general situation of these unfortunate people, we shall now take notice of the common consequences that are found to attend it, and relate them separately, Edition: Oppressed by a daily task of such immoderate labour as human nature is utterly unable to perform, many of them run away from their masters.

They fly to the recesses of the mountains, where they choose rather to live upon any thing that the soil affords them, nay, the very soil itself, than return to that happy situation, which is represented by the receivers, as the condition of a slave.

It sometimes happens, that the manager of a mountain plantation, falls in with one of these; he immediately seizes him, and threatens to carry him to his former master, unless he will consent to live on the mountain and cultivate his ground. When his plantation is put in essay and resume writters company he carries the delinquent home, abandons him to all the suggestions of despotick rage, and accepts a reward for his honesty.

The unhappy wretch is chained, scourged, tortured; and all this, because he obeyed the dictates of nature, and wanted to be free. And who is there, that would not have done the Edition: Who is there, that has once known the charms of liberty, that would not fly from despotism? But this law is even mild, when compared with another against the same offence, which was in force sometime ago, and which we fear is even now in force, in some of those colonies which this account of the treatment comprehends.

The following instance was given us by a person of unquestionable veracity, under whose own observation it fell. He heard the discharge of a gun, and soon afterwards stopping at an house for refreshment, the head of the fugitive, still reeking with blood, was brought in and laid upon a table with exultation.

The production of such a trophy was the proof required by law to entitle the heroes to their reward. This is one of the common consequences of that immoderate share of labour, which is imposed upon them; nor is that, which is the result of a scanty allowance of food, less to be lamented.

The wretched African is often so deeply pierced by the excruciating fangs of hunger, as almost to be driven to despair.

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What is he to do in such a trying situation? Let him apply to the receivers. Thus attacked on the one hand, and shut out from every possibility of relief buy wedding speech the other, he has only the choice of being starved, or of relieving his necessities by taking a small portion of the fruits of his own labour.

But the smart of the whip has not been the only pain that the wretched Africans have experienced. Any thing that passion could seize, and convert into an instrument of punishment, has been used; and, horrid to relate!

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Ears have been slit, eyes have been beaten out, and bones have been broken; and so frequently has this been the case, that it has been a matter of constant lamentation with Edition: But these instances of barbarity have not been able to deter them from similar proceedings.

And indeed, how can it be expected that they should? They have still the same appetite to be satisfied as before, and to drive them to desperation. But here they are almost equally sure of short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life. The watchman, who will be punished himself, if he neglects his duty, short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life seizes them in the fact. No excuse or intreaty will avail; he must punish them for an example, and he must punish them, not with Edition: Thus it happens, that these unhappy slaves, if they are taken, are either sent away mangled in a barbarous manner, or are killed upon the spot.

We may now mention the consequences of the severity. The wretched Africans, daily subjected to the lash, and unmercifully whipt and beaten on every trifling occasion, have been found to resist their opposers. What has been the consequence? For let the reader observe, that the life of an African is only valued at a price, that would scarcely purchase an horse; that the master has a Edition: How much does nature approve thy laws, as consistent with her own feelings, while she absolutely turns pale, trembles, and recoils, Psb coursework grading sheet the institutions of these receivers!

Sleep then you receivers, if you Edition: Some people may suppose, from the melancholy account that has been given in the preceding chapter, that we have been absolutely dealing in romance: Would to heaven, for the honour of human nature, that this were really the case!

We wish we could say, that we have no testimony to produce for any of our assertions, and that our description of the general treatment of slaves has been greatly exaggerated. But the receivers, notwithstanding the ample and disinterested evidence, a thesis statement on fast food can be brought on the occasion, do not admit the description to be true. They say first, Edition: If the observation be true, that passion is a short madness, then it is evident that self-interest, and every other consideration, must be lost, so long as it continues.

Impressed with the most haughty and short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life notions, easily provoked, accustomed to indulge their anger, and, above all, habituated to scenes of cruelty, and unawed by the fear of laws, they short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life hardly be found to be exempt from the common failings of human nature, and to Edition: But if passion may be supposed to be generally more than a ballance for interest, how must the scale be turned in favour of the melancholy picture exhibited, when we reflect that self-preservation additionally steps in, and demands the most rigorous severity.

For when we consider that where there is one master, there are fifty slaves; that the latter have been all forcibly torn from their country, and are retained in their present situation by violence; that they are perpetually at war in history personal statement help hearts with their oppressors, and are continually cherishing the seeds of revenge; it is evident that even avarice herself, however cool and deliberate, however free from passion and caprice, must sacrifice her own short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life feelings, and adopt a system of tyranny and oppression, which it must be ruinous to pursue.

It remains only to make a reply to an objection, that is usually advanced against particular instances of cruelty to slaves, as recorded by short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life writers. Would he have Edition: It would have surely staggered his faith; because he could never have heard that any one man ever was, and could never have supposed that any one man ever could be, guilty of the murder of such a number of his fellow creatures. The great God, who looks down worldpressleson.000webhostapp.com were stone, and their vitals brass; by what arguments do you receivers defend your conduct?

You say that a great part of your short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life treatment consists in punishment for real offences, and frequently for such offences, as all civilized nations have concurred in punishing. The first charge that you exhibit against them is specifick, it is mamapato.000webhostapp.com of theft. But how much short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life ought you receivers to blush, who reduce them to such a situation!

How much rather ought you receivers to be considered as robbers yourselves, Edition: And how much greater is your crime, who are robbers of human liberty!

The next charge which you exhibit against them, is general, it is that of rebellion; a crime of such a latitude, that you can impose it upon almost every action, and of such a nature, that you always annex to it the most excruciating pain. But what a contradiction is this to common sense!

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Have the wretched Africans formally resigned their freedom? Have you any other claim upon their obedience, than that of force? If then they are your subjects, you violate the laws of government, by making them unhappy. But if they are not your subjects, then, even though they should resist your proceedings, they are not rebellious.

But what do you say to that long catalogue of offences, which you punish, and of which no people but yourselves take cognizance at all? You say that the wisdom of legislation has inserted it in the colonial laws, and that you punish by authority.

But do you allude to that execrable code, that authorises murder? Here you say that the Africans are vicious, that they are all of them ill-disposed, that you must of necessity be severe. But can they be well-disposed to their oppressors? In their own country they were just, generous, hospitable: If then they are vicious, they must have contracted many of their vices from yourselves; and as to their own native vices, if any have been imported with them, are they not amiable, when compared with yours?

Thus short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life do the excuses, which have been hitherto made by the receivers, force a relation of such circumstances, as makes their conduct totally inexcusable, and, instead of diminishing at all, highly aggravates their guilt. Let us allow then for a moment, that they appear to have no parts, that they appear to be void of understanding. And is this How do you get your child to do homework when you receivers depress their senses by hunger?

Is this wonderful, when by incessant labour, the continual application of the lash, and the most inhuman treatment that imagination can devise, you overwhelm their genius, and hinder it from breaking forth? Neither is it short essay on advantages and disadvantages of city life in another point of view.

For what is it that awakens the abilities of men, and distinguishes them from the common herd? Is it not often the amiable hope of becoming serviceable to individuals, or the state? Is it not often the hope of riches, or of power? Is it not frequently the hope of temporary honours, or a lasting fame?

These principles have all a wonderful effect upon the mind. They call upon it to exert its faculties, and bring those talents to the publick view, which had otherwise been concealed. But the unfortunate Africans have no such incitements as these, that they should shew their genius. They have no hope of riches, power, honours, fame.

They have no hope but this, that their miseries will be soon terminated by death.